Developmental Theories

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Developmental Theories
2012-03-01 00:43:08
Developmental Theories

Nurs 111 Unit 6
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  1. Describe Freud's theories
    • psychoanalytic model of personality development
    • grandfather of psychoanalysis
  2. Describe Erikson's Theories
    Eight stages of life
  3. Describe Piaget's theories
    theory of cognitive development
  4. Sigmund Freud Model of Personality
    • Personality development is result of conflicts we resolve in childhood. We learn to satisfy impulses while handling social pressures.
    • If a conflict is not resolved during a psychosexual stage, the fixation persists
  5. According to Freud, which years are most important? And why?
    • The first 5 years
    • He argued that childhood experiences are important in personality development
  6. What are the three components of personality according to Freud?
    • Id
    • Ego
    • Superego
  7. Describe the Id personality
    basic instincts, impulsive behaviors to seek pleasure, reflex actions, and pleasure
  8. Describe the Ego personality
    Rational, thinking behavior, control, manipulation, problem-solving
  9. Describe the superego personality
    construct of socialization, morals, conscience, learned behavior
  10. What are Freud's 5 psychosexual stages, that are associated with a particular erogenous zone fixation?
    • 1. Oral
    • 2. Anal
    • 3. Phallic (Oedipal & Electra)
    • 4. Latency
    • 5. Genital
  11. Describe Freud's Oral stage
    • Birth-1 year
    • Mouth is associated with sexual pleasure
    • Parent/child bonding is essential
    • Weaning a child can lead to fixation if not handled correctly. Fixation can lead to oral activities in adulthood
  12. Describe Freud's Anal Stage
    • 1-3 years
    • Anus is associated with pleasure
    • Toilet training can lead to fixation if not handled correctly
    • Fixation can lead to anal retentive or explosive behaviors in adulthood
  13. Describe Freud's Phallic Stage
    • 3-5 years
    • Focus of pleasure shifts to the genitals
    • Oedipus or Electra complex can occur
    • Fixation can lead to excessive masculinity in males and the need for attention or domination in females.
    • Sex roles are internalized through identification to the parent of the same sex.
  14. Describe Freud's Latency Stage
    • 5yrs-puberty
    • Sexuality is repressed
    • Children participate in hobbies, school and same-sex friendships.
    • Achievment and knowledge are in focus
  15. Decribe Freud's Genital Stage
    • From puberty on
    • Sexual feelings re-emerge and are oriented toward others
    • Healthy adults find pleasure in love and work.
    • Fixated adults have their energy tied up in earlier stages
  16. Describe what Eriksons 8 stages are about
    • Based on Freud's theories
    • psychosocial crisis: arises and demands resolution before the next stage can be satisfactorily negotiated.
  17. What are Eriksons 8 stages?
    • Stage 1- Trust vs Mistrust (hope)
    • Stage 2- Self-Reliance vs Self-Doubt (will)
    • Stage 3- Initiative vs. Guilt (purpose)
    • Stage 4- Industry vs Inferiority (competence)
    • Stage 5- Identity vs. Role-Confusion (fildelity)
    • Stage 6- Intimacy vs. Isolation (love)
    • Stage 7- Generativity vs. Stagnation (care)
    • Stage 8- Integrity vs. Despair (wisdom)
  18. Describe Stage 1 Trust vs. Mistrust
    • Birth - 1 year Infancy
    • infants need to feel cared for and love
    • If needs are dependably met, infants develop a sense of basic trust
    • Trust within and without (trust of self and others)
    • Rejected children are more fearful, insecure, jealous, aggressive, hostile, isolated, and mistrustful
  19. Describe Stage 2 Self-Reliance vs. Self-doubt
    • 1-3 years Early Childhood
    • Awareness od emerging skills develops
    • Need to be taken seriously
    • toddlers learn to exercise will and do things fro themselves, or they doubt their abilities.
    • Positive resolution includes acceptance of negative feelings, rage, anger, hatred-as well as independence
  20. Describe Stage 3 Initiative vs. Guilt
    • 3-6 years Preschool age
    • Child decides what kind of person to be
    • Preschoolers learn to initiate tasks and carry out plans, or they feel guilty about efforts to be independent
    • Initiative comes with freedom and opportunity to initiate motor play and intellectual pursuits
    • Guilt comes from being made to feel bad about self-initiated activities and ideas
  21. Describe Stage 4 Industry vs. Inferiority
    • 6-12 years School Age
    • Children learn the pleasure of applying themselves to tasks, or they feel inferior
    • Academic tasks: reading , writing, math
    • Physical tasks: sports, manual dexterity
    • Social tasks: making friends, following rules, sharing ideas
    • Industry is orientation toward working, doing, and producing
  22. Describe Stage 5 Identity vs Role-Confusion
    • 12-18 years Adolescence and teen
    • teenagers work at refining a sense of self by testing roles and then integrating them to form a single identity, or they become confused about who they are
    • Time of psychological and physiological revolution
    • Firm self- image is formed
    • Must develop strong identity-sexual, personal
    • Time to select work goasl, career
    • Lack of identity=inability to progress successfully
  23. Describe Stage 6 Intimacy vs. Isolation
    • 18-25 years Early Adulthood
    • Young adults struggle to form close relationships and to gain the capacity for intimate love, or they feel socially isolated
    • Intimacy is the ability to care deeply for another person
    • The ability to give and receive affection
    • Isolation leads to delf-absorption and "social death"
  24. Describe Generativity vs.Stagnation
    • 35 to 55 years Middle Age
    • •The middle-aged discover a sense of contributing to the world, usually through family & work, or they may feel a lack of purpose.
    • •Become more aware of eventual death. Questions life-style, goals choices
    • •Motivation to have impact outside of family
    • •Care represents concern for others and need to
    • give to next generation
    • •Stagnation reflects preoccupation with self only
  25. Describe Integrity vs. Despair (wisdom)
    • Ages 55 to 65 to death Old age
    • •When reflecting on his or her life, the older adult may feel a sense of satisfaction or failure
    • •Wisdom comes from a meaningful life
    • •Integrity reflects the life well-lived
    • •With integrity, one can accept death
    • •Despair reflects a wish to do it over correctly
    • •With despair, one does not find peace
  26. Describe Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development
  27. •Only concerned with intellect (thinking, reason, perception)
    • •External & internal forces did not influence intellect
    • •Occurs in sequence but at much different rates
  28. Describe Piaget's Sensorimotor Stage
    • Ages 0-2
    • •Understand the world through senses and motor actions (sucking, kicking, grasping, hitting, looking)
    • •Develop object permanence
    • •Stranger anxiety
  29. Describe Piaget's Preoperative Stage
    • Ages 2-6 or 7
    • •Understand intuitive relations
    • •Uses play to communicate
    • •Thinking is egocentric, dominated by own perception
  30. Describe Piaget's Concrete Operations Stage
    • Ages 7-11 or 12
    • •Can do logical operations
    • •Understand reversibility
    • •Can do conservation & classification tasks
  31. What is the critical question of the "conservation of liquid" task?
    always- "why do you think so?"
  32. Describe Piaget's Formal Operations Stage
    • Age 12-adulthood
    • •Can do abstract & hypothetical reasoning
    • •Can reason contrary to experience
    • •Concerned about other people's place in society