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What is Nursing Agenda for Health Care Reform (ANA, 1991)
- Focus should be on Wellness and Care rather than Illness and Cure
- Clients are better educated and want more involvement in self care
What are the purposes of teaching and learning?
- Maintain health and promote wellness.
- Restore health.
- Living as well as possible with impaired function
- health care costs
- Improve quality care
- Decreased liability
- Joint Commission requires client education
What is Teaching & Learning?
- Teaching is interactive communication of knowledge.
- Nurses are ethically responsible to teach.
- Clients cannot make informed decisions without
- effective teaching.
- Requires determining clients education needs
- and readiness to learn.
- Learning is deliberately acquiring new knowledge and skills.
- Requires use of effective understanding and use of communication.
What are the Domains of Learning?
- *Blooms Taxonomy
Decribe the Cognitive Level of Learning
What is the difference between analysis
- analysis=analyzing the info and breaking it down into different parts.
- synthesis=taking thedifferent parts and applying it differently
Describe the Affective Level of Learning
- Receiving–willing to listen or attend
- Responding–active listening and reacting
- Valuing–attaching worth to behavior or object
- Organizing–identifying & organizing values, resolving conflicts
- Characterizing-applying value system consistently; internalizing values
Describe the Psychomotor Level of Learning
- Perception–through use of senses being aware of objects or qualities
- Set–readiness to take action – mental, physical, emotional
- Guided Response–performing skill under instructor guidance – imitation
- Mechanism–performs behavior more complex with more steps than guided response
- Complex Overt Response–smoothly and accurately performing motor skill that requires complex movement. (still improving)
- Adaptation–changing a motor response to solve unexpected problems occurring.
- Origination–Using learned psychomotor skills to perform complex motor act by creating new movement patterns
What are the Basic Principles of Learning?
- Motivation: Must have ability to attend to learning, & a reason to learn.
- We can understand through theories like Social Learning that understands that clients try to reach self-efficacy.
- Therefore it increases our ability to find ways to help our client increase self-efficacy.
- Client must be psychosocially ready to learn. Exp – grief
- Requires active participation in learning
- Ability: Developmental
- Children – method must match developmental
- stage. Infant – trust, textures; Adolescent – self-expression, collaborative, problem solving
- Adult Learning – self-directed, reduce anxiety, Identify own learning needs, affected by outside stressors.
- Physical capability – must match method.
: Distractions, Comfort, Dynamics
Describe the Nursing Process and Learning Process
- Assessment-safety, activity, medication knowledge, mental status, hearing
- Analysis-following care orders, proper use of aids, proper taking of aids
- Planning-client need to prioritize needs, knowing purpose, knowing side effects and interactions of medications
- Implementation-group setting, individualized information brochure
- Evaluation-discussion, verbalization of knowledge
Describe Assessment of Learning Process
- Expectations for learning
- Learning needs
- Teaching environment
- Appropriate Resources
- Health literacy & learning disabilities
Describe analysis od Learning Process
- What does the client need information about to increase
- self-care ability?
- Example: Deficient knowledge related to excess nutritional intake.
- What does the client have knowledge about, but is ready to
- learn more:
- Example: Readiness for enhanced knowledge related to physical fitness.
Describe Planning fo Learning Process
- Learning Plan begins with goal & learning outcomes.
- Very important the client is involved in planning.
- Need to set a minimum criteria for success.
- Complexity is determined by setting.
- Organization should be simple to complex.
Collaborating for effective teaching
Describe Implementation of Learning Process
- Build on existing knowledge
- Use teaching approach appropriate for situation
- Instructional methods vary depending on clients needs and
- resources available.
How can teaching be efficiently integrated with nursing care?
- Show Learning pyramid
- Use of interpreters
- Consider reading level
- Language barrier
- Age (what generation they come from)
- Social economic status (can they afford
- to buy the needed supplies)
What are the 4 teaching approaches?
- Telling: outlines the task to be done, gives explicit instructions
- Participating: Client/Nurse set objectives together- have client determine what they need to do and help them determine which objective is more important
- Entrusting: client get the opportunity to manage self care responsibilities are accepted. Teacher has earned the trust of the client because of behavior changes
- Reinforcing: using a stimulus that increases the probability of a response.
What are the Instructional Methods to Teaching approaches?
One on one
- Group instruction
- Preparatory Instruction
- Role Playing
Describe Evaluation of Learning Process
- Measure of success in learning
- Written or verbal testing
- Modify based on success