A hypothetical, internal state of tension that motivates an organism to engage in activites that should reduce this tension
What is the concept of incentive?
An external goal that has the capacity to motivate behavior
Explain how evolutionary theories explain human motives
They argue that the natural selection favors behaviors that maximize reproductive succes-- that is, passing on genes to the next generation.
Identify two categories of motives.
Classify a factor in hunger as biological or environmental (given an example. like brain regulation, or the avilability of tasty food)
Hunger was thought to have on-off switches.
When investigators destroyed the lateral hypothalamus (LH) animals showed little/ no interest in food
When investigator destroyed the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH), the animals ate excessively and gained weight rapidly
New studies show that LH and VMH are elements in the neural circuity that regualtes hunger but not the key elements (not simple on-off switches)
*Accumilating evidence suggests that the hypothalamus contains a convergence of interacting systems that regulate eating by monitoring a diverse array of physiological processes.
Studies have shown that hunger can be increase by exposure to pictures
* Hunger and eating are governed in part by the incentive qualities of food
Identify the four phases of human sexual reponse identified by Masters and Johnson
Excitement- the level of physical arousal usually excalates rapidly, in borh sexesm muscle tension, respiration rate, heart rate, and blood pressure increase quickly.
* Vascongestions- engorgement of blood vessels (causes penis to get hard, causes clitoris to harden, expand vaginal lips, and vaginal lubrication)
Plateau- Physiological arousal usually continues to build, but at a much slower pace
Orgasm- occurs when sexual arousal reaches its peak intensity and is discharged in a series of muscular contractions that sulsate through the pelvic area
Resolution- The physiological changes produced by sexual arousal gradually subside.
If orgasm has not occurred, the reduction in sexual tension may be relatively slow. After orgasm, men experience a refactory period, a time following orgasm during which males are largely unresponsive to further stimulation.
Explain how evolutionary analyses account for differences in how men and women typically approach mating, and recognize evidence for this account.
Men are thought to compete with other men for the relatively scare and valuable "commodity" of reporductive opportunities.
Men show greater interest in sex, more desire for variety in sexual partners, and more willingness to engage in uncommited sex. Incontrast, females are thought to be the conservative, discriminating sex that is highly selective in choosing partners. This selectivity supposedly involves seeking partner who have the greatest ability to contrivute toward feeding and caring for offspring because our ancestors always chose the males who could take care of the family.
List some of the criticisms of the evolutionary account of male- female differences in sexual behavior
Males show a greater interest in sex, think about sex more often, intiate sex more often than women do. Males have more frequent and varied sexual fantasies and sex drive is higher than females. Male partners are more likely than females to report that they would like to have sex more often, and men spend more money that women on sexual entertainment. Men are more motivated than women to pursue sex with a greater variety of partners. Men are more likely to have sex with someone for only a brief period.
*In men's defense, sexual disparities between males and females may be exaggerated a little by reliance on subjects' self-reports. Because of the "double standard" regarading sexuality, women worry more than men about being viewed as sexxually permissive, which may lead them to underestimate or downplay their sexual motivation.
Identify explanations of homosexuality that are not supported by the evidence
Freudian theorists argued that a male is likely to become gay when raised by a weak, detached, ineffectual father who is a poor heteroseuxal rolde model and by an over protectivem overly attached mother, and whom the boy identifies.
Behavioral theories argued that homosexuality is a learned preference acquired when same-sex stimuli have been paired with sexual arousal, perhaps through chance seudcations by adult homosexuals
Report on what studies of identical twins and fraternal twins tell us about a biological component to sexual orientation
Given that identical twins share more genetic overlap than fraternal twins, who share more gendes than unrelated adoptive siblings,these roles suggest there is a genetic predisposition to homosexuality
Identify three components of emotion
1. the cognitive component (a subjective conscious experience)
2. the physiological component (bodily arousal)
3. the behavioral component (characteristic over expressions)
Identify similarites in the emotional experiences people in different cultures
They could identify happiness, sadness, anger,fear, surprise, and disgust based on facial expressions.
Identify differences in the emotional experiences people in different cultures have
There are some English words for emotions that have no equivilent in other languages
Nonverbal expressions of emotions vary somewhat across cultures because of culture-specific attitudes and display rules
Identify the six emotions that most experts agree are primary or fundamental