Medical terminology Ch 7

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Medical terminology Ch 7
2012-03-02 14:51:38

Respiratory System
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  1. alveolus; air sac
  2. anthrac/o
  3. atel
  4. bronch/o
  5. bronchiol/o
  6. bronchi/o
  7. coni/o
  8. diaphragmat/o
  9. epiglott/o
  10. laryng/o
  11. lob/o
  12. nas/o
  13. orth/o
  14. ox/o, ox/i
  15. pharyng/o
  16. pleur/o
  17. pneum/o
  18. pneumon/o
  19. pulmon/o
  20. rhin/o
  21. sinus/o
    sinus, cavity
  22. spir/o
  23. trache/o
    trachea, windpipe
  24. -capnia
    carbon dioxide
  25. -ectasis
    dilated, expansion
  26. -osmia
  27. -phonia
  28. -pnea
  29. -ptysis
  30. -thorax
  31. oragans in the respiratory system
    • nasal cavity
    • pharynx
    • larynx
    • trachea
    • bronchial tubes
    • lungs
  32. Three parts of respiration
    • ventilation
    • external respiration
    • internal respiration
  33. ventilation
    the flow of air between outside environment and the lungs
  34. Inhalation
    the flow of air into the lungs
  35. exhalation
    flow of air out of the lungs
  36. Inhalation and exhalation
    • Inhalation brings O2
    • Exhalation removes CO2
  37. External respiration
    exchange of O2 and CO2 that takes place in the lungs. These gases diffuse in opposite directions between the air sacs of the lungs and the bloodstream. O2 enters the air sacs to the bloodstream. CO2 enters the air sac from the blood stream and exhaled.
  38. Internal inspiration
    • the process of O2 and CO2 exchange at the cellular level when oxygen leaves the bloodstream and is delivered to the tissues. O2 needed for the body's cell metabolism (physical and chemical changes that are necessary for life).
    • By product of metabolism is the formation of a waste (CO2). Transported by bloodstream back to lungs for disposal.
  39. cilia
    means hair
  40. mucous membrane
    secretes a sticky fluid that moisturizes and warms inhaled air as it passes nasal cavitity
  41. mucus
    sticky fluid that helps cleanse the air by trapping dust and bacteria.
  42. nares
    external openings of the nose
  43. nasal septum
    a flexible cartilage wall that divides the nasal cavity into left and right halves. It is covered by mucous membrane.
  44. Palate
    the roof of the mouth. The anterior portion is hard and bony, and the posterior portion is soft and flexible.
  45. paranasal sinuses
    air-filled cavities within the facial bone that open into the nasal cavity; act as an echo chamber during sound production.
  46. adenoids
    • another term for pharyngeal tonsils.
    • The tonsils are a collection of lymphatic tissue found in the nasopharynx to combat microorganisms entering the body through the nose or mouth.
  47. auditory tube
    another name for the eustachian tube, connecting the middle ear and the pharynx.
  48. pharynx
    throat 5 inch long tube consisting of three parts. naso pharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx. Three pairs of tonsils, collection of lymphatic tissue.
  49. Tonsils
    Strategically placed to help keep pathogens from entering the body through either the air breathed or food and liquid swallowed.considered part of the lymphatic system.
  50. nasopharynx
    behind the nose contains adenoidsor pharyngeal tonsils.
  51. oropharynx
    behind the mouth contains palatine tonsils and lingual tonsils.
  52. eustachian or auditory tube
    • found in the naso pharynx.
    • The other end of this tube in found in the middle ear.
    • Opens to equalize air pressure between the middle ear and the outside atmosphere.
  53. Larynx
    voice box. located between the pharynx and the trachea and conatins the vocal chords.
  54. vocal cords
    The vocal cords are folds of membranous tissue that produce sounds by vibrating as air passes through the glottis.
  55. Glottis
    Opening between the two vocal cords
  56. epiglottis
    • A flap of cartilaginous tissue.
    • Sits above the glottis
    • provides protection against food and liquid being inhaled into the lungs.
  57. thyroid cartilage
    part of the larynx known as the adam's apple.
  58. Trachea
    • also called the windpipe.
    • the passageway for air that extends from the pharynx and larynx down to the main bronchi.
    • Approximately 4 inches in length
    • it is composed of smooth muscle and cartilage rings
    • is lined by mucous membrane and cilia
    • assists in cleansing, warming, and moisturizing air as it travel to the lungs
  59. alveoli
    • smalll group of air sacs
    • walls are elastic expand and recoil to orignal size
    • 150 in each lung
    • part of the respiratory membrane.
    • encapusalted by pulmonary capillaries.
  60. bronchus
    • left and right bronchus.
    • one enters each lung
    • branches repeatedly form secondary and tertiary bronchi
    • branch narrow until branches into bronchioles
  61. bronchioles
    • narrowest branches of bronchi.
    • terminate into air sac called alveoli
  62. pulmonary capillaries
    • blood vessels that tightly encapsulate each alveolus.
    • Alvelous and capillaries so tightly associated with each other they are referred to as a single unit.
    • The respiratory membrane
  63. Pleura
    • double membrane that that protect the lungs.
    • outer membrane parietal pluera
    • inner membrane visceral pleura
  64. parietal pleura
    lines the outer side of the lungs and the chest cavity
  65. visceral pleura
    inner lining of the lungs adheres to the surface of the lungs.
  66. pleura membrane
    is folded in such a way that is forms a sac around each lung referred to as a pleural cavity.
  67. serous fluid
    • slippery watery fluid between the two layers of the pleura.
    • Reduces friction when the two layers rub together during expansion and contraction.
  68. Lobes
    • division of the lungs
    • three lobes in the larger right lung
    • two lobes in the left lung
  69. apex of lung
    pointed superior portion of the lung.
  70. base
    broader lower area of lung
  71. hilum
    Entry of structures like bronchi, pulmonary blood vessels, and nerves into each lung occurs along this medial border
  72. mediastinum
    • the area between the right and left lung
    • contains the heart, aorta,esphogus, thymus gland, and trachea.
  73. pulmonary function test
    • test used to measure lung volumes.
    • The functioning level of the respiratory system.
  74. respiratory therapist
    aid im mearsuring lung volumes
  75. diaphragm
    • a muscle separating the abdomen from the thoracic cavity.
    • diaphragm contracts and moves downward