the flow of air between outside environment and the lungs
the flow of air into the lungs
flow of air out of the lungs
Inhalation and exhalation
Inhalation brings O2
Exhalation removes CO2
exchange of O2 and CO2 that takes place in the lungs. These gases diffuse in opposite directions between the air sacs of the lungs and the bloodstream. O2 enters the air sacs to the bloodstream. CO2 enters the air sac from the blood stream and exhaled.
the process of O2 and CO2 exchange at the cellular level when oxygen leaves the bloodstream and is delivered to the tissues. O2 needed for the body's cell metabolism (physical and chemical changes that are necessary for life).
By product of metabolism is the formation of a waste (CO2). Transported by bloodstream back to lungs for disposal.
secretes a sticky fluid that moisturizes and warms inhaled air as it passes nasal cavitity
sticky fluid that helps cleanse the air by trapping dust and bacteria.
external openings of the nose
a flexible cartilage wall that divides the nasal cavity into left and right halves. It is covered by mucous membrane.
the roof of the mouth. The anterior portion is hard and bony, and the posterior portion is soft and flexible.
air-filled cavities within the facial bone that open into the nasal cavity; act as an echo chamber during sound production.
another term for pharyngeal tonsils.
The tonsils are a collection of lymphatic tissue found in the nasopharynx to combat microorganisms entering the body through the nose or mouth.
another name for the eustachian tube, connecting the middle ear and the pharynx.
throat 5 inch long tube consisting of three parts. naso pharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx. Three pairs of tonsils, collection of lymphatic tissue.
Strategically placed to help keep pathogens from entering the body through either the air breathed or food and liquid swallowed.considered part of the lymphatic system.
behind the nose contains adenoidsor pharyngeal tonsils.
behind the mouth contains palatine tonsils and lingual tonsils.
eustachian or auditory tube
found in the naso pharynx.
The other end of this tube in found in the middle ear.
Opens to equalize air pressure between the middle ear and the outside atmosphere.
voice box. located between the pharynx and the trachea and conatins the vocal chords.
The vocal cords are folds of membranous tissue that produce sounds by vibrating as air passes through the glottis.
Opening between the two vocal cords
A flap of cartilaginous tissue.
Sits above the glottis
provides protection against food and liquid being inhaled into the lungs.
part of the larynx known as the adam's apple.
also called the windpipe.
the passageway for air that extends from the pharynx and larynx down to the main bronchi.
Approximately 4 inches in length
it is composed of smooth muscle and cartilage rings
is lined by mucous membrane and cilia
assists in cleansing, warming, and moisturizing air as it travel to the lungs
smalll group of air sacs
walls are elastic expand and recoil to orignal size
150 in each lung
part of the respiratory membrane.
encapusalted by pulmonary capillaries.
left and right bronchus.
one enters each lung
branches repeatedly form secondary and tertiary bronchi
branch narrow until branches into bronchioles
narrowest branches of bronchi.
terminate into air sac called alveoli
blood vessels that tightly encapsulate each alveolus.
Alvelous and capillaries so tightly associated with each other they are referred to as a single unit.
The respiratory membrane
double membrane that that protect the lungs.
outer membrane parietal pluera
inner membrane visceral pleura
lines the outer side of the lungs and the chest cavity
inner lining of the lungs adheres to the surface of the lungs.
is folded in such a way that is forms a sac around each lung referred to as a pleural cavity.
slippery watery fluid between the two layers of the pleura.
Reduces friction when the two layers rub together during expansion and contraction.
division of the lungs
three lobes in the larger right lung
two lobes in the left lung
apex of lung
pointed superior portion of the lung.
broader lower area of lung
Entry of structures like bronchi, pulmonary blood vessels, and nerves into each lung occurs along this medial border
the area between the right and left lung
contains the heart, aorta,esphogus, thymus gland, and trachea.
pulmonary function test
test used to measure lung volumes.
The functioning level of the respiratory system.
aid im mearsuring lung volumes
a muscle separating the abdomen from the thoracic cavity.