Bio Ch 12 mendelian genetics

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tjtolman
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138908
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Bio Ch 12 mendelian genetics
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2012-03-02 12:19:42
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CH 12 mendelian genetics
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  1. Gregor Mendel:
    • Australian monk - 1822-1884
    • Grew up in small farm, cech republic
    • Monastary - 1843
    • University of Veina (science, math, scientifc method)
    • Returned to monastary (research on peas)
    • Oral presentation 1865 -written paper 1866 (not understood)
    • Became abbot of monastary (research ended)
    • -1900 Research rediscovered
  2. Why was mendel so successful
    • Training in both math and science (scientifc method)
    • Used peas- short gen. time, easy to grow, lines grown before.
    • Peas can both self pollinate and cross pollinate
    • Brilliant
  3. Peas:
    • 7 different traits from 2 different forms
    • -flower color
    • -seed color
    • -plant height
  4. Peas reproduction:
    • P = parent
    • F1 = filial

    • Dominant trait - shows up in second generation
    • Recessive - dissapears in second generation
    • Each plant has 2 hereditary factors (genes) for a trait
    • Gametes must receive 1 of these factors
    • Factors dont blend *not light purple
    • Rediscovered - 1900
  5. Homologous chromosomes:
    Pairs of chromosomess in diploid (carry same info)
  6. Gene:
    • Helps to describe or control a particular trait.
    • Found at particular location on chromosome
    • Mendel's "Factors"
  7. Alele:
    • Alternative form of a gene
    • Capitol (R) : dominant
    • Lower case (r): recessive
  8. Locus:
    Location of a gene
  9. Possible combination of genes from R x r
    • RR- homozygous dominant
    • Rr- heteroxzygous
    • rr - homozygous recessive
    • (GENOTYPES - genetic makeup of organism)
  10. Phenotype:
    physial appearance of organism
  11. Punnett square:


    • R= round r= wrinkled
    • F2 ratio: 1RR:2Rr:1rr (genotype ratio)
    • Phenotype ratio: 3 round: 1 wrinkled
  12. Monohybrid cross
    • 1 trait only is being watched
    • Mendel's first law "Law of Segregation"
    • 1) in organisms, pairs of factors
    • 2) in meiosis, pairs of factors seperate
  13. Test Cross:
  14. Dihybrid cross:
    • 315 round yellow, 101 wyellow, 108, round green, 32 wgreen
    • "9:3:3:1"
  15. Mendel's Second Law:
    • "Law of Independent Assortment"
    • -Pairs of factors seperate independently of one another
  16. Different situations 1:
    • 1) incomplete dominance: heterozygote is intermediate in phenotype between the homozygotes
    • Genotype ratio:1CRCR:2CRCW: 1CWCW
    • 1 red:2pink:1white
    • Phenotype is same as genotypet
  17. Different situations 2-5:
    • 2) environement can affect gene expression
    • 3) Pleiotropy: one alle can have more than 1 effect on phenotype (cystic fibrosis)
    • 4) Epistasis: 1 gene sometimes affects expression of 2nd gene
    • 5) Continuous variation: many genes can affect 1 trait (human height)
  18. Different situations 6:
    • Codominance: more than 1 alle can be dominant (ABO blood groups)
    • A and B are codominant
    • Antigen- sugar chains on outside of red blood cells

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