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What does genetic engineering involve?
The transfer of one or more genes from the genome of one organism to the genome of another organism
What can genetic engineering also be called?
Give two examples of genetic engineering that humans have used to create new combinations of genes for their own benefit
- Pest or herbicide resistance
- Crop/livestock improvement
- Environmental clean up where bacteria have been "engineered" to break down certain waste products
- "Biofactories" - where bacteria produce desirable products such as the hormone insulin
What are organisms with artificially altered DNA referred to as?
- Genetically modified organisms
- Or transgenic organisms
How can we determine the location of a desired gene?
- Characteristic bonding patterns on chromosomes
- Gene probes
Briefly describe genetic engineering
- Select a particular gene for a desirable characteristic (eg human insulin)
- Splice it into the DNA of a vector (eg plasmid from a bacteria)
- Insert the vector into the host cell (eg E.coli)
What are the enzymes involved in genetic engineering?
- Endonuclease - cleaves open the plasmid and cuts out the required gene
- Ligase - seals opening together again
Name two traits genetically modified plants have been engineered to have
- Improved shelf-life
- Increased nutrional value
- Resistance to harsh environmental conditions
Somatic fusion allows two _______ species to interbreed successfully?
What is the enzyme used to digest cell wall material?
What is the name given to the cell in which the cell wall has been removed?
How are the two protoplasts fused during somatic fusion?
Using an electric current
How is the callus, the mass of undifferentiated cells, stimulataed to develop into a new plant?
By the presence of hormones
Give two examples of what breeders are trying to achieve with somatic fusion
- Introduce resistance to potato leaf roll in potatoes
- Introduce nitrogen fixing abilities in wheat plants
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