Social Psychology Exam 2
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Social Psychology Exam 2
Cognitive dissonance attitude persuasion
a positive or negative evaluation of a particular thing or person
what are strong attitudes comprised of?
commitment = shields attitude against contradictory information
embeddedness = connects attitude to other aspects of the self
Components of Theory of Planned Behavior?
atittude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control --> behavioral intention --> behavior
What is the Theory of Planned Behavior used to describe?
the connection b/w attitude and behavior
Three components of Attitude-Behavior Consistency?
attitude accessibitily (know what others think)
In what ways are attitudes formed?
Study by Ross, McFarland, and Fletcher:
hear communication that were favorable or unfavorable toward brushing and bathing
positive message --> more favorable to bathing and brushing
negative message --> negative attitude toward bathing and brushing
Article 12 - origins of cognitive dissonance research methods and design:
assessed childrens preferences of different stickers
: choice/ no choice
did study with monkeys and m & ms
What is cognitive dissonance?
ppl feel a tension when they are aware of an inconsistency wither b/w two attitudes or b/w attitude and behavior
What were reasons some of the Ss data had to be discarded?
indicated in the interview that they were suspicious of having been paid and suspected the real reason of experiment
Ss told the girl they were hired
Ss refused to take the money and refused to be hired
one S demanded her phone number saying he would call her and explain things
What is social identity theory?
Social identity = a person's sense of who they are based on their group membership
we categorize = shortcut to knowing other characteristics of a perosn
we identify = gain self-esteem by doing this
we compare = our in-group whith the out group and hold a favorable bias toward our group
What are ppl seeking when they identigy with a social group?
self-esteem b/c they lack a positive personal indentity
in- group bias:
the tendency to benefit member of ones own group over other groups
what is the basis of in-group bias?
the group definition of who you are, implies a definition of who you aren't
the mere experience of being formed into groups may promote in-group bias
Minimal Group Paradigm:
an experimental procedure in which short-term, arbitrary, artificial groups are created to explore the foundations of prejudice, stereotyping, and discrimination
What is the non-verbal behavior that helps a person know when someone else is engaging in self-monitoring for deceptive purposes?
tone of voice
the tendency to be chronically concerned with ones public image and to adjust ones actions to fit the needs of the current situation
What are reasons for self-monitoring?
to obtain desirable resources
to control impressions ppl form of us
the help others know how we expect to b treated
What classical study highlighted the minimal group paradigm?
Tiajes painting study
a generalized attitude toward members of a social group
-attitude = positive or negative evaluation of particular group
generalized belief about member of a social group
-belief = thoughts about these things
behaviors directed toward ppl on the basis of thier group membership
Provide explanantions for discriminating behavior using the four theoretical perspective in Social psychology:
Social cognition = you see other ppl discriminats so you do to
Social learning = parent discriminate so child learns to discriminate too
evolutionary = we are born to discriminate a certain type of person b/c they are harmful
sociocultural = where you live it is a social norm to discriminiate against a certain type of person
explain cognitive miser in the context of prejudice and stereotypes:
when one sees a perosn they us a cognitive miser to shortcut that perosn into a stereotype instead of taking the long route to get to know them
Findings of Steel & Aronson's Stereotype Vulnerabilty Study?
blacks performed significantly worse than whites only in the diagnostic condition
the nondiagnostic condition and challenge condition reduced the stereotype vulnerability
Design and manipulation of the "when a new identity does harm on the spot" article?
2 X 2 - negative or no stereotype & high vs. low group identification
told each person has convex or concave information processing style
in the negative stereotype condition, the more participants identified with their novel group, the stronger was their decrease in performance
what does it measure?
Implicit Association Test
Measures implicit prejudices and stereotypes