policy mid-term part 3

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policy mid-term part 3
2012-03-01 14:27:56

policy part 3
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  1. two types of poverty
    • absolute: unable to meet basic needs of survival (food, shelter, clothing)
    • relative: basic needs are met, relative to standard of living of others in community
  2. three general categories of poor
    • those making only min. wage or the working poor
    • the unemployed
    • those who have poor health, occupational disability, lack of education or skill training
  3. Three theories of poverty
    culture of poverty, eugenics and poverty, and radical school and poverty
  4. The Culture of Povery Theory believes poverty ____ are ____ from _____ to _____ in a _____, and it trancends any ___, ____, or ____ differences (_____).
    traits; transmitted; generation; generation; self-perpetuation cycle; regional ; urban/rural ; national; (pretty much the same where ever you go)
  5. The Culture of Povery Theory believes poverty exist where ____.
    there is underemployment and unemployment for unskilled laborers as well as low wages
  6. The Culture of Poverty Theory states that poverty is characterized by _____.
    hopelessness, indifference, alienation, apathy and a lack of participation or intergration in to society
  7. The Eugenics and Poverty Theory believes poverty is due to ______. It is ____ at its worst. Most recently (1994) the ____ in which authors argued ____.
    genetics; social Darwinism; Bell Curve: that socioeconomic inequality in the U.S. was due to lack of genetic intelligence
  8. The Radical School of Poverty Theory states that poverty results from ______. Higher status equals _____. Lower status are _____. Ex. employers use an _____ to ____ knowing that there will be _____ and use that as a ____ to discipline the labor force and demand concessions.
    • exploitiation by the ruling capitalist or dominant class
    • more reward
    • denied resources
    • oversupply of workers, drive down wages, an abundance of job seekers, poverty threat (through unemployment)
  9. The poverty line or poverty threshold is the ____ and is primarily used for _____. The poverty guideline uses a ____. They are both used to ____.
    official measure; statistical purposes; slightly lower poverty level; determine eligibility requirements for federal programs
  10. What are some criticisms of the poverty line
    • excludes in-kind benefits
    • ignores cost of earning
    • doesn't account for regional differences for cost of living
    • ignores impact of tax payments
    • ignores effects of EITC
    • ignores value of health coverage and expense of medical bills and health insurance
    • does not reflect changes in spending
  11. What is the working poor
    individuals who spend at least 27 weeks in the labor force but whose family or personal incomes fall below the poverty line
  12. What are the demographic of the working poor and why are there working poor
    • less educated, children under 18 in the home, female, and minorities
    • low paying service jobs
  13. three approaches to combating poverty
    Currative, alleviative, preventive
  14. Curative approach
    end it by helping the poor to become self-supporting, break the self-perpetuating cycle, goal is rehibilitation and target is the causes of poverty
  15. alleviative approach
    exemplified by public assistence programs to ease suffering
  16. preventive approach
    exemplified by social insurance programs such as social security
  17. The voluntary sector encompases _____ it provides ____ and promotes_____.
    • profit and non-profit organizations, commercialization, faith based social services, and social entrepreneurship
    • social services
    • social justice
  18. Cons of privatization
    • if profits are linked to reducing welfare roles, the incentive to deny aid will be significant
    • corporations are likely to reduce personnel cost
    • replacing offices and workers with technology
    • gov't would suffer if commercial providers bail on contracts
    • corporations would have more influence on policy
  19. Pros of privatization
    • going to save the gov't money
    • savings could be used to lower taxes
  20. Elitist
    individuals representing a "power structure" control social policy in order to maintain the status quo that gives them the advantage and excludes marginal groups
  21. Pluralists
    social policy is the sum total trade-offs among different interest groups
  22. Incrementalists
    social policy is the result in bit-by-bit additions to the public social infrastructure
  23. social stratification
    • the vertical segmentation of the population according to income, occupation, and status
    • upper class, middle class, lower class (even further to)
    • wealthy
    • executives
    • professionals
    • organized workers
    • working/welfare poor
    • underclass
  24. the policy process can be divided in to four stages:
    formulation, legislation, implementation, evaluation
  25. formulation
    experts assess social conditions and make recommendations
  26. legislation
    committees and sub committees being influenced by lobbyists and PACs
  27. implementaion
    impacted by funding, personnel, and lack of enforcement
  28. evaluation
    often focuses on waste, cost effectiveness, and goal attainment. rarely provides a clear indication for further action