A&P lecture Joints part 2

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A&P lecture Joints part 2
2012-03-01 16:23:27
lecture Joints part

knee joint, shoulder joint, hip joint, mandible, elbow joint, common injuries, degenerative conditions and diseases, developmental aspects
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  1. Knee Joint
    Largest, most complex joint in the body

    3 Joints surrrounded by a single cavity

    At least 12 associated bursae

    • Joint capsule reinforced by muscle tendons
    • -e.g. quadriceps and semimembranosus tendons

    Joint capsule is thin and absent anteriorly
  2. Knee Joint
    label picture
  3. Knee Joint
    3 Joints
    • 1. Femoropatellar Joint
    • -Plane Joint
    • -allowing gliding motion during knee flexion

    • 2. & 3. Later and Medial tibiofemeral joints
    • -between femoral condyles and the c-shaped later and medial menisci (semilunar cartilages)of the tibia
    • -allow flexion, extension, and some rotation when knee is partly flexed
  4. Knee Joint
    • Anteriorly, the quadriceps tendon gives rise to :
    • -lateral and medial patellar retinacula
    • -pattelar ligament

    • Capsular and extracapsular ligaments:
    • -help prevent hyperextension

    • Intracapsular ligaments
    • -anterior and posterior cruciate ligamens
    • -prevent anterios-posterior displacement
    • -reside outside the synovial cavity
  5. Shoulder
    Label Picture
  6. Shoulder (Glenohumeral Joint)
    Ball and socket Joint: head of humerus and glenoid fodda of ther scapula

    Stability is sacrificed for greater range of movement
  7. Shoulder Joint
    Reinforcing ligaments
    • 1. Coracohumeral ligament
    • -only strong thickening of capsule
    • -helps support the weight of the upper limb
    • -rim of fibrocartilage in geloid cavitity called glenoid labrum: provides little stability

    2. 3 glenohumeral ligaments- somewhat weak anterior reinforcements
  8. Shoulder Joint
    Reinforcing Muscle tendons
    • 1. Tendon of the long head of biceps: "super stabilizer"
    • -travels through the intertubercular grooce
    • - secures the humerus to the glenoid cavity

    • 2. Four rotator cuff tendons encircle the shoulder joint
    • A. Subscapularis
    • B. Supraspinatus
    • C. Intraspinatus
    • D. Teres Minor
  9. Elbow Joint
    -Radius and ulna articulate with the humerus

    -Hinge Joint formed mainly by trochlear notch of ulna and trochlea of humerus

    -Flexion and extension only
  10. Elbow Joint
    Label picture
  11. Elbow Joint
    Anular ligament- sounds the head of radius

    • Two capsular ligaments restrict side-to-side movement:
    • 1. Ulnar collateral ligament
    • 2. Radial collateral ligament
  12. Hip (Coxal) Joint
    -Ball and scoket joint

    -Head of femur articulates with the acetabulum

    -Good range of motion, but minited by deep scoket

    -Acetabular labrun- enhances depth of socket and stabilizes
  13. Hip Joint
    Label Picture
  14. Hip Joint
    Reinforcing ligaments
    • 3 "Screw" a person's leg in straight when they stand
    • Iliofemoral ligament
    • Pubofemoral ligament
    • Ischiofemoral Ligament

    • Ligamentum Teres:
    • -contains an artery that helps supply the head of the femur
  15. Common Joint Injuries
    The ligament is stretched or torn

    partial tear slowly repair themselves (avascular)

    Complete ruptures require prompt surgical repair
  16. Common Joint Injuries
    Cartilage Ttears
    Due to compression and shear stress

    Fragments (loose bodies) many cause joint to lock or bind

    Cartilage rarely repairs itself (avascular)

    Repaired with arthroscopic surgery
  17. Common Joint Injuries
    Dislocations (luxations)
    occur when bones are forced out of alignment

    accompanies by sprains, inflammation, and joint immobilization

    caused by serious falls or playing sports

    Sublaxation: partial dislocation
  18. Inflammation and Degenerative Conditions
    • Bursitis
    • -an inflamation of the bursa, usually cause by a blow or friction
    • -treated with rest and ice; if severe then anti-inflammatory drugs

    • Tendonitis
    • -inflammation of tendon sheaths typically caused by overuse
    • -symptons and treatment similar to bursitis
  19. Arthritis
    Over 100 different types of inflammatory or degenerative diseases that damage joints

    Most widespread crippling disease in the U.S.

    Symptoms: pain, stiffness, and swelling of the joint

    Acute forms: caused by bacteria, treated with antibiotics

    Chronic Forms: osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and gouty arthritis
  20. Osteoarthritis (OA)
    -Common, irreversible, degenerative (wear and tear) arthritis

    -85% of all Americans develops OA, more women than men

    -Probably related to the normal aging process

    -More cartilage is destroyed than replaced in badly aligned or overworked joints

    -Exposed bone ends thicken, enlarge, form bone spurs, and restrict movement

    -Treatment: moderate activity, mild pain relievers, capsaicin creams, glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate
  21. Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)
    -Chronic, inflammatory, autoimune disease of unknown cause

    -Usually arises between age 40-50, but may occur at any age ; affects 3x as many women as men

    -Sign and Symptoms: joint pain and swelling (usually bilateral), anemia, osetoporosis, muscle weakness, and cardiovascular problems
  22. Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)
    -RA begins with synovitis of the affected joint

    -Inflammatory blood cells migrate to the joint, release inflammatory chemicals

    -Inflamed synovial membrane thickens into pannys

    -Pannus Erodes cartilage, scar tissue forms, articulating bone ends connect (ankylosis)
  23. RA Treatment
    -Conservative therapy: aprin, long-term use of anti-biotics, and physcial therapy

    -Progressive treatment: anti-inflammatory drugs or immunosuppressants

    New Biological response modifeier drugs neutralize inflammatory checmicals
  24. Gouty Arthritis
    Deposition of uric acid crystals in joints and soft tissues, followed by inflammation

    More common in men (estrogen increases uric acid excretion)

    Typically effects the joint at the base of the great toe

    In untreated gouty arthritis, the bone ends fuse to immobilize the joint

    Treatment: drugs, planty of water, avoidance of alcohol
  25. Lymes Disease
    Caused by bacteria transmitted by the bites of ticks

    Symptoms: skin rash, flu-like symptoms, and foggy thinking

    May lead to joint pain and arthritis

    Treatment: anti-biotics
  26. Developmental aspects of Joints **
    Embryonic Week 8: synovial joints resemble adult joints

    • Growing up and Adulthood:
    • A Joints size, shape, and flexibility are modified by use

    • Advancing years takes a toll on joints
    • -Ligaments and tendons shorten and weaken
    • -intervertebal discs become more likely to herniate
    • -most peple in their 70s have some degree of OA

    • Exercise that coaxes joints through their full range of motion is key to postponing joint problems
    • -pool exercises are great because you get full motion without the weight