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What precipitated the mergers and consolidation that have occurred in the cable industry in recent years?
- The 1996 Telecommunications Act &
- Shifting from analog to digital technology
What was created in 1927 to help establish some sort of regulation and order over the chaos of the largely unregulated airwaves?
- Radio Act of 1927 and
- the creation of the Federal Radio Commission (FRC)
Who helped push the development of television as a mass medium yet blocked the development of FM radio for years?
David Sarnoff, head of RCA
Who is considered the "father" of radio broadcasting?
Lee de Forest
What are the three types of radio broadcasting?
AM, FM, and Satellite radio
What is broadcasting?
The transmitting of messages through a wireless means to multiple locations, distributing information widely.
Wat does long tail in the record industry mean?
- The selling a few of many types of items and being successful rather than selling many copies of just a few items.
- This concept works well for online retailers, Amazon & Netflix.
What does payola mean?
Cash or gifts given to radio DJs by record labels in exchange for greater airplay / promoting a certain song by playing it more frequently.
The gramophone used a flat disc to record sound rather than a cylinder that was used up to that time.
Who was its inventor?
Emile Berliner, launched by Victor Talking Machine Company
The phonograph began as Thomas Edison patented his first "talking machine," using what?
A tinfoil cylinder
What similarities does the recorded music industry have to other large media entertainment companies?
- Both have seen an increase in ownership consolidation
- And both have been affected by the shift to an on-demand digital media environment.
Why is radio as vital today as ever?
- Radio is the only medium among all the mass-media types that remains easy to use while engaging in other activities, such as driving. You also don’t have to be literate to listen.
- The portability and flexibility for power, Radio is well suited for emergencies. When electrical power may be lost, radio receivers can operate for extended periods on batteries
The basic business model in the recorded music industry can be divided into which three main parts?
Creation, Promotion, Distribution
What was the first paperback book form?
The Dime Novel
Who was the publisher of the first mass medium newspapers that sold for one cent?
Benjamin Day published the New York Sun
Which newspaper has the largest circulation?
To counter the increasing popularity of television, the magazine industry took what major step to win advertising dollars?
They stopped general interest magazines and started specialized magazines.
Name 3 of the world's largest media companies that own newspapers.
Cox Enterprises, Bertelsmann, News Corp.
What is an interesting opportunity newspapers have int he digital age?
- They can use the internet to launch online news operations which will allow them to serve a wider audience.
- No more geographic, political, or cultural boundaries.
What are the two leading newspaper chains?
McClatchy Company and Tribune Company
What were the earlier formats of books?
Wet-clay tablets, animal skins in scroll form, Papyrus, CODEX which replaced the scroll form.
What are the 4 main concepts of digital media?
What is the reason the
Internet/World Wide Web requires a higher level of technical media literacy to use the computer than is required for a television or VCR?
One cannot go out and "buy an internet" as they can with a TV or VCR.
What are the revenue models for digital media?
Advertising, Subscription, eCommerce
Who developed the Simplified Communications model?
What are the functions of mass communication?
- 1. Surveillance – provides information
- 2. Correlation – provides interpretation
- 3. Cultural Transmission
- 4. Entertainment
What is the danger of the entertainment function of mass communication?
- It will encourage lowbrow entertainment at the expense of fine art, encourage escapism, and do not help raise the cultural level of society.
- And it can perpetuate certain stereotypes about various groups.
Is the communication flow in the transmission model of communication is one-directional?
What are two examples of cultural convergence?
- Sex and the City becoming widely popular among female office workers in Thailand.
- Mexican telenovela, or soap opera, gets high ratings among audiences in Russia.
What two factors exist today that assures the eventual merger of television and personal computers?
- The proximity people place their computers to their televisions.
- With home Wi-Fi connections TV viewers can get online w/ their laptops or mobile devices.
- And Digital TV which enables the convergence of computing, television and telecommunications, brings the possibility of interactivity.
Online radio stations must abide by what federal law that prohibits the advance posting of playlists?
Digital Millennium Copyright Act
Who invented email in 1971?
What are the 4 basic categories represent the foundation for critical media consumption?
- 1. Understanding variations in how much media are used.
- 2. Knowing Media Grammar
- 3. Seeing the effect of fragmentation of media channels.
- 4. Recognizing how commercial forces shape media content
What three principal ways can we evaluate media in the digital age?
- 1. What is the brand name? Is it a brand that is well established and proven their reliability?
- 2. Examine the new or unfamiliar source’s own internal standards, organization, & personnel – by checking “About Us”
- 3. Compare the source with other trusted sources.
What are the six theoretical approaches to ethics?
- The Golden Rule
- The Golden Mean
- The Categorical Imperative
- The Veil of Ignorance
- Discourse Ethics
Social Marketing operates under what theoretical principle?
What are the two main systems for funding media?
- Commercial marketplace – print & electronic media are run to make money.
- NonProfit system - relies on public funding, or support from government or other public institutions, corporate gifts & sponsorships, & audience contributions.
What is media oligopoly?
- A marketplace in which media ownership & diversity is limited.
- The actions of any single media group affect its competitors, including determining the content & price of media products for both consumers & advertisers.
What are the main elements in the original Shannon and Weaver mathematical theory?
- 1. Information source
- 2. Transmitter
- 3. Channel
- 4. Receiver
- 5. Destination
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