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Directly observable physical and behavioral characteristics. Are determined by both genetic and environmental factors.
An individual's genetic makeup.
Rodlike structures which store and transmit genetic information
A segment of a DNA molecule that contains instructions for production of various proteins that contribute to growth and functioning of the body.
The process of cell dublication, in which each new cell receives an exact copy of the original chromosomes.
The process of cell division through which gametes are formed and in which the number of chromosomes in each cell is halved.
Sex cells, or sperm and ova, which contain half as many chromosomes as regular body cells.
-Formed through a cell division process called meiosis
The newly fertilized cell formed by the union of sperm and ovum at conception.
-Results from Meiosis
The 22 matching chromosome pairs in each human cell.
The twenty-third pair of chromosomes, which determines the sex of the individual. In females, it's called XX, in males, XY.
A pattern of inheritance in which, under heterozygous conditions, the influence of only one allele is apparent.
A heterozygous individual who can pass a recessive trait to his or her offspring.
A pattern of inheritance in which many genes influence a characteristic.
Range of Reaction
Each person's unique genetically determined response to a range of environmental conditions.
The idea that heredity influences the environments to which individuals are exposed.
- 3 types:
A type of genetic-environmental correlation in which individuals actively choose environments that complement their heredity.
- -Child has no control over it
- -Parents provide environments influenced by their own heredity.
- Ex. Parents who are good athletes emphasized outdoor activities or sports. Children may inherit parents' athletic ability
- -Children produce responses that are influenced by the child's heredity.
- -Ex. An active, friendly baby is likely to recieve more soical stimulation than a passive, quiet baby.
- -Children seek environments that fit with their genetic tendencies.
- -Ex. Niche picking.