Psych 19 Ch.2

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  1. Phenotypes
    Directly observable physical and behavioral characteristics. Are determined by both genetic and environmental factors.
  2. Genotype
    An individual's genetic makeup.
  3. Chromosomes
    Rodlike structures which store and transmit genetic information
  4. Gene
    A segment of a DNA molecule that contains instructions for production of various proteins that contribute to growth and functioning of the body.
  5. Mitosis
    The process of cell dublication, in which each new cell receives an exact copy of the original chromosomes.
  6. Meiosis
    The process of cell division through which gametes are formed and in which the number of chromosomes in each cell is halved.
  7. Gametes
    Sex cells, or sperm and ova, which contain half as many chromosomes as regular body cells.

    -Formed through a cell division process called meiosis
  8. Zygote
    The newly fertilized cell formed by the union of sperm and ovum at conception.

    -Results from Meiosis
  9. Autosomes
    The 22 matching chromosome pairs in each human cell.
  10. Sex Chromosomes
    The twenty-third pair of chromosomes, which determines the sex of the individual. In females, it's called XX, in males, XY.
  11. Dominant-recessive inheritance
    A pattern of inheritance in which, under heterozygous conditions, the influence of only one allele is apparent.
  12. Carriers
    A heterozygous individual who can pass a recessive trait to his or her offspring.
  13. Polygenic Inheritance
    A pattern of inheritance in which many genes influence a characteristic.
  14. Range of Reaction
    Each person's unique genetically determined response to a range of environmental conditions.
  15. Genetic-environmental correlation
    The idea that heredity influences the environments to which individuals are exposed.

    • 3 types:
    • -Passive
    • -Evocative
    • -Active
  16. Niche-picking
    A type of genetic-environmental correlation in which individuals actively choose environments that complement their heredity.
  17. Passive Correlation
    • -Child has no control over it
    • -Parents provide environments influenced by their own heredity.
    • Ex. Parents who are good athletes emphasized outdoor activities or sports. Children may inherit parents' athletic ability
  18. Evocative Correlation
    • -Children produce responses that are influenced by the child's heredity.
    • -Ex. An active, friendly baby is likely to recieve more soical stimulation than a passive, quiet baby.
  19. Active Correlation
    • -Children seek environments that fit with their genetic tendencies.
    • -Ex. Niche picking.
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Psych 19 Ch.2
Psych 19 Chapter 2 Flashcards
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