Peds E2

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blierman
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138979
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Peds E2
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2012-03-01 19:04:17
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Peds E2
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  1. Chickenpox (varicella): Agent,
    Agent: Varicella-zoster
  2. Chickenpox (varicella): Transmission
    Transmission: Airborne, direct contact
  3. Chickenpox (varicella): Systemic Manifestations
    Systemic manifestations: Fever, malaise, headache, abdominal pain
  4. Chickenpox (varicella): Skin Manifestations
    Skin manifestations: Clear, fluid-filled vesicles all over the body
  5. Chickenpox (varicella): Treatment and Nursing Considerations
    • Treatment: Supportive
    • Nursing: Isolation, symptom management
  6. Coxsackievirus (Herpangina; Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease): Agent
    Agent: Coxsackievirus A16, Enterovirus 71
  7. Coxsackievirus (Herpangina; Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease): Transmission
    Transmission: Fecal-oral and respiratory routes
  8. Coxsackievirus (Herpangina; Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease): Systemic manifestions
    Systemic manifestations: Fever, sore throat
  9. Coxsackievirus (Herpangina; Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease): Skin manifestions
    • Herpangina: Papulovesicular lesions in pharynx only
    • Hand, foot, and mouth disease: Papulovesicular lesions on inside of cheek, gums, tongue, as well as hands and feet
  10. Coxsackievirus (Herpangina; Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease): Treatment and Nursing Considerations
    • Treatment: Supportive
    • Nursing: Isolation, topical lotions, cool drinks
  11. Diphtheria: Agent
    Agent: Corynebacterium diphtheriae
  12. Diphtheria: Transmission
    Transmission: Contact with nasal or eye discharge
  13. Diphtheria: Systemic manifestations
    Systemic manifestations: Fever, anorexia, rhinorrhea, cough, stridor
  14. Diphtheria: Skin manifestations
    Skin manifestations: Tonsils, pharynx covered in thick, bluish-white patch
  15. Diphtheria: Treatment and Nursing Considerations
    • Treatment: Antibiotics, IV antitoxin
    • Nursing: Isolation, monitor for respiratory distress, administer antibiotics
  16. Erythema Infectiosum (Fifth Disease): Agent
    Agent: Human parvovirus B19
  17. Erythema Infectiosum (Fifth Disease): Transmission
    Transmission: Respiratory secretions and blood
  18. Erythema Infectiosum (Fifth Disease): Systemic manifestations
    Systemic manifestations: Flu-like illness
  19. Erythema Infectiosum (Fifth Disease): Skin manifestations
    Skin manifestations: Fiery-red rash on cheeks (“slapped face” appearance) – lace-like rash on trunk and limbs
  20. Erythema Infectiosum (Fifth Disease): Treatment and Nursing Considerations
    • Treatment: Supportive
    • Nursing: Isolation, fever control, antipruritics, soothing baths (oatmeal)
  21. Haemophilus Influenzae Type B (HIB): Agent
    Agent: H. influenzae bacteria (several serotypes exist)
  22. Haemophilus Influenzae Type B (HIB): Transmission
    Transmission: Direct contact or droplet inhalation
  23. Haemophilus Influenzae Type B (HIB): Systemic manifestations
    Systemic manifestations: Viral upper respiratory tract infection that invades bloodstream – may cause meningitis, cellulitis, epiglottitis, pneumonia, or sepsis
  24. Haemophilus Influenzae Type B (HIB): Skin manifestations
    Skin manifestations: None specific
  25. Haemophilus Influenzae Type B (HIB): Treatment and Nursing Considerations
    • Treatment: Antibiotics
    • Nursing: Isolation, prophylaxis for close contacts, antipyretics
  26. Influenza: Agent
    Agent: Orthomyxoviridae, types A and B
  27. Influenza: Transmission
    Transmission: Aerosolized particles, direct contact with secretions
  28. Influenza: Systemic manifestations
    Systemic manifestations: Fever, chills, malaise, headache, nausea, and vomiting, diarrhea
  29. Influenza: Skin manifestations
    Skin manifestations: None specific
  30. Influenza: Treatment and Nursing Considerations
    • Treatment: Supportive – antivirals for children at risk for complications
    • Nursing: Isolation, prevent dehydration, comfort
  31. Measles (Rubeola): Agent
    Agent: Morbillivirus
  32. Measles (Rubeola): Transmission
    Transmission: Airborne, droplet, and contact
  33. Measles (Rubeola): Systemic manifestations
    Systemic manifestations: High fever, conjunctivitis, cough, anorexia, malaise
  34. Measles (Rubeola): Skin manifestations
    Skin manifestations: Koplik spots on buccal mucosa – red, blotchy, maculopapular rash (face, trunk, limbs)
  35. Measles (Rubeola): Treatment and Nursing Considerations
    • Treatment: Supportive – antibiotics for secondary infections
    • Nursing: Isolation, antipyretics, antitussives, monitor respiratory status
  36. Mononucleosis:Agent
    Agent: Epstein-Barr virus
  37. Mononucleosis: Transmission
    Transmission: Direct contact with secretions
  38. Mononucleosis: Systemic manifestations
    Systemic manifestations: Malaise, headache, fatigue, fever, lymphadenopathy – weakness and lethargy may persist for months
  39. Mononucleosis: Skin manifestations
    Skin manifestations: None specific
  40. Mononucleosis: Treatment and Nursing Considerations
    • Treatment: Supportive
    • Nursing: Antipyretics, bed rest during acute phase
  41. Mumps (Parotitis): Agent
    Agent: Rubulavirus
  42. Mumps (Parotitis): Transmission
    Transmission: Contact with respiratory secretions
  43. Mumps (Parotitis): Systemic manifestation
    Systemic manifestations: Malaise, fever, pain with chewing, parotid gland swelling
  44. Mumps (Parotitis): Skin manifestation
    Skin manifestations: None specific
  45. Mumps (Parotitis): Treatment and Nursing Considerations
    • Treatment: Supportive – disease is usually self-limiting
    • Nursing: Isolation, comfort
  46. Pertussis (Whooping Cough): Agent
    Agent: Bordetella pertussis
  47. Pertussis (Whooping Cough): Transmssion
    Transmission: Respiratory droplets – direct contact with secretions
  48. Pertussis (Whooping Cough): Systemic manifestations
    Systemic manifestations: Runny nose, fever, mild cough that becomes more severe at night – infants do not manifest the “whooping” sound
  49. Pertussis (Whooping Cough): Skin manifestations
    Skin manifestations: None specific
  50. Pertussis (Whooping Cough): Treatment and Nursing Considerations
    • Treatment: Antibiotics, steroids, supportive care
    • Nursing: Isolation, monitor respiratory status, dehydration
  51. Pneumococcal Infection: Agent
    Agent: Streptococcus pneumoniae
  52. Pneumococcal Infection: Transmission
    Transmission: Respiratory secretions, droplet
  53. Pneumococcal Infection: Systemic manifestations
    Systemic manifestations: Related to area of infection (otitis, sinusitis, bacteremia, pneumonia, meningitis)
  54. Pneumococcal Infection: Skin manifestations
    Skin manifestations: None specific
  55. Pneumococcal Infection: Treatment and Nursing Considerations
    • Treatment: Antibiotics (many resistant strains exist)
    • Nursing: Isolation, antipyretics, encourage fluids
  56. Poliomyelitis: Agent Agent: Poliovirus
    Agent: Poliovirus
  57. Poliomyelitis: Transmission
    Transmission: Fecal-oral, possibly respiratory
  58. Poliomyelitis: Systemic manifestations
    Systemic manifestations: May be mild or severe – CNS symptoms, respiratory weakness, paralysis
  59. Poliomyelitis: Skin manifestations
    Skin manifestations: None specific
  60. Poliomyelitis: Treatment and Nursing Considerations
    • Treatment: Supportive
    • Nursing: Monitor respiratory status, comfort
  61. Roseola (Exanthem Subitum, Sixth Disease): Agent
    Agent: Herpesvirus type 6
  62. Roseola (Exanthem Subitum, Sixth Disease): Transmission
    Transmission: Possibly respiratory secretions of healthy individuals
  63. Roseola (Exanthem Subitum, Sixth Disease): Systemic manifestations
    Systemic manifestations: High fever for 3 to 8 days, otherwise no symptoms
  64. Roseola (Exanthem Subitum, Sixth Disease): Skin manifestations
    Skin manifestations: Pale pink, maculopapular rash (trunk, face, neck, limbs)
  65. Roseola (Exanthem Subitum, Sixth Disease): Treatment and Nursing Considerations
    • Treatment: Supportive – disease usually self-limiting
    • Nursing: Rarely hospitalized – fever control
  66. Rotavirus: Agent
    Agent: Reoviridae family of rotaviruses
  67. Rotavirus: Transmission
    Transmission: Fecal-oral route
  68. Rotavirus: Systemic manifestations
    Systemic manifestations: Fever (acute onset), vomiting, diarrhea (10-20 stools per day)
  69. Rotavirus: Skin manifestations
    Skin manifestations: None
  70. Rotavirus: Treatment and Nursing Considerations
    • Treatment: Rehydration (oral or IV); no antiviral therapy is available, but is preventable by vaccine
    • Nursing: Hand hygiene; monitor intake and output
  71. Rubella (German Measles): Agent
    Agent: RNA virus
  72. Rubella (German Measles): Transmission
    Transmission: Droplet or direct contact
  73. Rubella (German Measles): Systemic manifestations
    Systemic manifestations: Low-grade fever, headache, malaise, anorexia
  74. Rubella (German Measles): Skin manifestations
    Skin manifestations: Pink, nonconfluent, maculopapular rash
  75. Rubella (German Measles): Treatment and Nursing Considerations
    • Treatment: Supportive – disease usually mild. Prenatal exposure causes birth defects
    • Nursing: Isolation, especially from pregnant women – comfort measures
  76. Streptococcus A: Agent
    Agent: Group A streptococci (GAS)
  77. Streptococcus A: Transmission
    Transmission: Contact with respiratory secretions – direct contact
  78. Streptococcus A: Systemic manifestations
    Systemic manifestations: Pharyngeal (sore throat, fever)
  79. Streptococcus A: Skin manifestations
    Skin manifestations: Pyodermal (impetigo – honey-colored lesions)
  80. Streptococcus A: Treatment and Nuring Considerations
    • Treatment: Antibiotics – uncomplicated impetigo treated topically
    • Nursing: Usually cared for at home – fever management, warm fluids
  81. Tetanus: Agent
    Agent: Clostridium tetani or tetanus bacillus
  82. Tetanus: Transmission
    Agent: Clostridium tetani or tetanus bacillus
  83. Tetanus: Systemic manifestations
    Systemic manifestations: Neck or jaw stiffness, facial spasms, prolonged muscle contraction
  84. Tetanus: Skin manifestations
    Skin manifestations: None specific
  85. Tetanus: Treatment and Nursing Considerations
    • Treatment: Tetanus immune globulin – respiratory monitoring and ventilation
    • Nursing: Wound care, monitor respiratory status, hydration
  86. Lyme Disease: Agent Agent: Borrelia burgdorferi, a spirochete
    Agent: Borrelia burgdorferi, a spirochete
  87. Lyme Disease: Transmission
    Transmission: Tick bite (infected spirochete transmitted when tick draws blood)
  88. Lyme Disease: Systemic manifestations
    Systemic manifestations: Malaise, headache, mild fever, joint aches
  89. Lyme Disease: Skin manifestations
    Skin manifestations: Red, “bulls-eye” rash around tick bite
  90. Lyme Disease: Treatment and Nursing Considerations
    • Treatment: Antibiotics
    • Nursing: Discuss prevention of tick bites and proper tick removal – treatment usually occurs at home, rest and completion of antibiotics
  91. Malaria: Agent
    Agent: Plasmodium (four species exist)
  92. Malaria: Transmission
    Transmission: Via infected female mosquito bite
  93. Malaria: Systemic manifestations
    Systemic manifestations: Malaise, headache, vomiting, diarrhea, high fever spike every 48 to 72 hours
  94. Malaria: Skin manifestations
    Skin manifestations: None specific
  95. Malaria: Treatment and Nursing Considerations
    • Treatment: Fluid replacement, antipyretics, anemia management, chloroquine treats most species of the parasite
    • Nursing: Standard precautions – monitor fluid intake, signs of worsening illness (confusion, seizures, shock), antipyretics
  96. Rabies (Hydrophobia): Agent
    Agent: Rhabdoviridae (two types-one in dogs, one in wildlife)
  97. Rabies (Hydrophobia): Transmission
    Transmission: Infected saliva from bite of rabid animal
  98. Rabies (Hydrophobia): Systemic manifestations
    Systemic manifestations: Long incubation period – headache, fever, malaise, difficulty swallowing (leads to hydrophobia) – untreated, leads to coma and death)
  99. Rabies (Hydrophobia): Skin manifestations
    Skin manifestations: None specific
  100. Rabies (Hydrophobia): Treamtne and Nursing Considerations
    • Treatment: Human rabies immune globulin for passive immunity – rabies vaccine for active immunity
    • Nursing: Administration of vaccine and education about side effects
  101. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever: Agent
    Agent: Rickettsia rickettsii
  102. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever: Transmission
    Transmission: Transmitted by infected ticks
  103. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever: Systemic manifestations
    Systemic manifestations: May be mild (malaise, fever) to severe (encephalitis, shock)
  104. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever: Skin manifestations
    Skin manifestations: Maculopapular rash (extremities, then trunk)
  105. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever: Treatment and Nursing Considerations
    • Treatment: Doxycycline
    • Nursing: Prevention of tick bites – standard precautions, administer antibiotics, monitor for worsening symptoms

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