vet-tech-large-animals-cattle

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darlene.m.nelson
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138980
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vet-tech-large-animals-cattle
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2012-03-01 18:54:28
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vet tech large animals cattle set
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vet tech large animals cattle set
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  1. Cattle
    • 2 reasons to raise them: beef and dairy
    • most every breed has polled strains
    • Ed's opinion - don't need horns on cows/sheep/goats
  2. Bull
    • male bovine
    • intact
    • used for breeding
  3. Cow
    • female bovine
    • usually already has given birth
  4. Heifer
    • female bovine
    • hasn't yet given birth
    • under 2 years
  5. Calf
    • young bovine
    • either male or female
  6. Steer
    • castrated male
    • raised for beef
  7. Ox/Oxen
    • male castrated at an older age
    • used for draft purposes
    • heavy front end on animal, which is a secondary sex characteristic (why castration delayed)
  8. Gestation
    • 283 days = 9 months
    • bigger breeds are a little longer, up to 290 days
    • smaller breeds, like Dexters, are 273 days
    • will accept anything between those on a test
  9. Colostrum
    • mother's first milk - contains antibodies to give calf immunity
    • yellow color, milk turns white when colostrum is gone
    • important that the calf gets up and feeds in the first 8 hours of birth to receive colostrum
    • after 12 hrs, pH changes in calf's stomach, openings become smaller, can no longer absorb antibodies
  10. Life span of females
    • beef - 5.5 years
    • dairy - 2.3 years
  11. Commericial agriculture
    • concerned with high production
    • extreme farming
  12. Farming in the desert
    • eg Saudi Arabia
    • one method - center pivot irrigation
    • - long metal arm pivots over a well to disperse water in a HUGE area
    • - helps grow alfalfa for the cows
    • - working right now
    • - Saudi government is looking to shut it down as they are running out of water
  13. Beef Cattle
    • raised/bred to produce meat
    • eat to produce muscle that makes up the meat
    • make about 5,000 lbs milk in 7 months
    • turned out to pasture
    • range herds can take a week to get together
    • calves have passive immunity for about 6 months
    • at about 7 months, calves are gathered, weaned, taken from mothers
    • males are castrated, weights checked
    • vaccinated & turned out to pasture in a different one from mom
    • this is the most strenous day of their lives other than harvest day
    • moms rebred 75-100 days after calving
    • become pregnant & go to pasture
    • if they don't become pregnant (referred to as "open"), they are slaughtered
  14. Angus
    • most popular breed in the world
    • originated in Scotland
    • comes in black & red
    • naturally polled - born without horns
    • produce some of the best beef
    • can be labeled as Angus if it has >= 25% Angus blood in it
    • has gene that causes fat to develop inside the muscle as opposed to around it like other breeds
    • - fat keeps the meat juicy & tender when cooked
    • pro:
    • - calves born small with little stress to mom
    • - get more $ at market because Angus is premium meat
    • con:
    • - excitable
    • - high strung
    • - don't herd well; don't stay together
    • - difficult to raise on open ground
  15. Hereford
    • from england
    • good milkers
    • good mothers
    • easy to handle
    • come with/without horns
    • best way to get rid of horns = breed them out of your herd
  16. Xbred Hereford & Angus
    • get best qualities of both breeds
    • ideal is to get black coat w/ white face - called "Black Baldies" (BB)
    • black hide is highly coveted as a sign of Angus heritage
  17. Heterosis
    • hybrid vigor
    • f1 generation when you cross two pure bred together
    • Angus/Hereford cross = Black Baldie
    • A + H = 1 + 1 = 3 (not 2, because of hybrid vigor gives an added advantage)
    • f1 is better generation than original
    • if you add a 3rd breed, eg f1 + Charolais, would be f2
    • 3 cross breeds are good, but 4 is not effective
    • some farmers will go to generation f2, then go back to original & cycle through
    • X breeds used to maximize profits
  18. Shorthorn
    • from England
    • beef or dairy
    • red white or roan
    • polled shorthorn or shorthorn
    • good animal to use in xbreeding
  19. Highland
    • from Scotland
    • bred for looks
    • do well in real rough pasture
    • HUGE set of horns = dangerous to work with
    • don't grow very quickly, so cost more to raise
    • grass fed
    • more of a novelty breed
  20. Belted Galloway
    • usually known as the "Oreo Cookie Cow"
    • cute to look at
    • miserable to handle
    • big kickers
    • novelty breed
    • slower growing
    • grass fed
  21. Devon
    • from England
    • in style now
    • not a huge # around
    • nice animal to handle
  22. Simmental
    • considerably bigger than Hereford/Angus
    • concept was to get more meat
  23. Charolais
    • from France
    • has gene that causes double muscle
    • extreme size
    • got bad reputation as killers because calves were too big and cows died in birth
    • vets had to do c-section
    • bred down in size
  24. Chianina
    • semen was brought over for artificial insemination (AI)
    • calves were big - 100 lb at birth
    • calving was hard
    • at 8 months, they were 1000 lbs, but big frame, no muscles
    • kept longer to get muscle
    • at 2 years, 4200 lbs - huge animals
    • bu the time they had appropriate mass for market, they were way to big for processing plant
    • could not hang meat high enough, so it hit the ground and was condemned
    • too large to fit in shipping boxes, so popularity waned
  25. Brahman
    • from India, South America
    • market price dramatically reduced because of head
    • liked because they were resistant to heat, insects
    • have a gene which allows their whole body to twitch at the same time when hit by fly
    • cross bred with LOTS of other breeds
    • they like warm, tropical areas
    • parasite indifference
  26. Dexter
    • Ireland
    • novelty breed
    • smaller breed - mature weight 700 lbs
    • fairly quiet
    • tendency to put on weight
  27. Holstein/Brown Swiss/Hereford cross
    • produced a beef cow breed Hayes Converter
    • eat forage well
    • udder stayed up tight
    • ruggedness, size & production of Holstein
  28. Kobe beef
    • more about the method of raising the cow than anything else
    • it is from a Wagyu (Japanese breed), which is a composite of Brown Swiss and others
    • cows raised as individuals
    • brushed every day
    • fed the very best feed and quite a variety
    • males are castrated
    • near harvest, they are fed beer - high carbs
    • groomed & massaged just before death, they are totally relaxed and adrenaline doesn't build up in muscle
    • niche market for people who have the means to pay for it
    • even a poorer cut of meat can go for $50 or more a pound
  29. Cuts of beef
    • chuck
    • rump
    • prime
    • if you have 1000 lb cow, have about 560 lb after remove horns, hide
    • about 430-440 lb get sold
  30. Chuck
    • - roast, steak, hamburg
    • - front end of animal, also includes the neck
    • - fat & muscle, a lot of bone
    • - can be tough but flavorful
  31. Rump
    • - top round, bottom round
    • - back end of animal
    • - not a lot of flavor
    • - can be tough
  32. Prime
    • - T-bone, porterhouse, tenderloin, filet mignon, sirloin tips
    • - front of hip to shoulder (spine)
    • - 20% of animal is prime cut
  33. Box beef
    • shipping beef
    • more productive to fit beef into boxes than to ship it hanging
  34. Dairy cattle
    • calves taken from mom at 12-24 hours, sometimes immediately
    • because calf drinks all the milk, none left for the dairy farmer
    • mom forms bond with calf & gets adrenaline rush when calf taken away later
    • - prevents let-down of milk & cow gets sick
    • calves are weaned at 6-8 weeks
    • - water is added to milk gradually over 4-5 days until they are drinking just water
    • can do earlier
    • - question is rumen development
    • - not quite developed enough to process feed until then
    • moms are milked daily - make 25,000 lb mik in 10 months (more physical stress than beef cattle
    • after parturition, milk production goes up to peak production - feed her higher protein
    • cows work harder & hader to get to peak milk production - lots of calories
    • just after peaks, cow is forced to get pregnant again - under a lot of stress
    • some ranchers scale back onmilk production, which may add another year to their life
    • - the stress of this life eventually takes it's toll
    • - cows have a short life span leading this type of life
    • shouldn't see a fat dairy cow
  35. Milk
    • butterfat is cream - where the money is in milk production
    • price of milk farmers get has only gone up $2 per 100 lbs since 1976
    • milk processors control the price of milk
    • milk perishable - has to be processed w/in 72 hrs; farmers can't keep milk until price goes up
    • farmers get more efficient at getting milk from cows, put more milk into market, drives price down
    • whole milk - ~ 3.25%
    • antibiotics in milk
    • - people could be allergic
    • - processor won't pick up
    • - can't even make cheese with it
    • - if it does get into truck, farmer pays for all milk already in truck
    • raw milk
    • - not pasteurized
    • - pasteurization destroys vit D
    • - need to be certified to sell
    • somatic cell count
    • - WBC count in milk
    • - if high, somewhere in herd many w/ low grade infection or one w/ massive infection
  36. Robotic milking
    • 98% of cows will walk in to stall & robotic milkers attach to teats
    • grain is automatically fed to cow in stall while she is being milked
    • sensors tell robotic milker when cow is dry
    • some cows get wise & leave stall to return immediately
    • - robotic milker reads the # of the cow
    • - realizes that this cow was recently milked
    • - does not give feed
    • - does not milk
  37. Holstein
    • originally from Germany
    • sometimes called Holstein Fresian
    • in Europe, called Fresian - true Fresian is a little heavier
    • most popular
    • most productive
    • extremely efficient
    • produce 2000 lb/yr; 8.25 lb/gal
    • largest breed - goes hand in hand with highest production
    • colors
    • - black/white & red/white
    • - red/white more more heat tolerant than black/white
    • weight - 1400-1500 lb
    • downside
    • - don't produce a lot of butterfat
    • - ~ 3.6% avg for breed, individual may be more/less
    • calves ~ 90+ lb at birth
  38. Jersey
    • mini-cooper of cows
    • most efficient - more milk for less feed
    • smallest
    • 2nd most popular
    • avg 16,000-17,000 lb milk/year
    • known for butterfat content - ~ 4.5%
    • tend to to produce high carotene content - skim milk will appear yellow
    • - carotene makes milk healthier for you
    • when processed for meat, fat will be yellow
    • popular in upstate VT, NY - used for cheeses, yogurts
    • produce high protein count for cheese
    • calves ~ 45lb at birth
    • biggest downside - nervous, high strung
  39. Guernsey, Ashford, Jersey
    colored breeds usually produce more butterfat than Holstein
  40. Guernsey
    • Ed's favorite - can do no wrong
    • from Channel Island - Isle of Guernsey
    • 5th most popular
    • Essex Co, MA - highest population of Guernsey per sq mi at one time
    • - they were estate cows cared for by indentured servants mostly from Scotland; 1 for 3-4 cows
    • - in 60s, tax laws changed - no longer could write off cows
    • bred to be pretty, not to deal with stress of everyday life
    • very sweet
    • produces high butterfat, high carotene
    • milk was called Guernsey Gold
    • very few of this breed left
  41. Brown Swiss
    • from Switzerland - known as Brown Cow
    • good, quiet, couch potato cow
    • easy to work with, mellow
    • built strong, rugged
    • see in Wisconsin, Minnesota, Michigan
    • high protein - good for cheese
    • 4th most popular
    • bad feet/legs - won't move to eat, won't produce milk, won't stay around
  42. Ayrshire
    • from Scotland
    • good amount of milk, decent protein & butterfat
    • 3rd most popular
    • see in ME, VT for cheeses
    • good feet, legs
    • smaller than Holstein, larger than Jersey
    • high-strung, tough to handle

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