Unit 1 Med Surg 1 Key Terms

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Unit 1 Med Surg 1 Key Terms
2012-03-01 22:13:15

Key terms unit 1
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  1. Chapter 18 Words to Know
  2. Cancer
    disease characterized by abnormal, disorganized cell proliferation
  3. neoplasms
    New growth of abnormal tissues or tumors
  4. benign
    tumors that are not invasive or spreading
  5. malignant
    tumors that are invasive and capable of spreading
  6. metastasis
    spreading of tumor cells
  7. primary site
    area where malifnant cells first forms
  8. secondary site
    metastatic site; regions to which cancer cells have spread
  9. Carcinogenesis
    the process of malignant transformation and altering of the genetic structure of DNA within the cells.
  10. carcinogens
    factors that contribute to the developement of cancers
  11. contrast medium
    a substance that highlights, outlines, or provides more detail than shown in a plain film.
  12. radiation therapy
    uses high-energy ionizing radiation, such as high-energy x-rays, gamma rays, and radioactive particles to destroy cancer cells, shrink tumors, and relieve symptoms.
  13. brachytherapy
    refers to short-distance therapy.
  14. unsealed radiation sources
    radiation in a suspension or solution or radiopharmaceutical therapy
  15. alopecia
    hair loss
  16. stomatitis
    inflammation of the mouth
  17. xerostomia
    dryness of the mouth
  18. cystitis
    inflammation of the bladder
  19. pneumonitis
    inflammation of the lungs
  20. myelosuppression
    depression of bone marrow function
  21. leukopenia
    decreased white blood cell count
  22. thrombocytopenia
    decreased platelet count
  23. Chemotherapy
    technique that uses antineoplastic agents to treat cancer cells locally and systemically.
  24. antineoplastic
    type of drug used to treat cancer that works by interfering with cellular function and reproduction
  25. extravasation
    leaking of an intravenously administered drug into surrounding tissues.
  26. vesicants
    intravenous medications that cause tissue necrosis if they infiltrate.
  27. neutropenia
    decreased neutophils
  28. engraftment
    establishment of bone marrow that has been harvested and reinfused
  29. immunotherapy
    use of biologic response modifiers to stimulate the body's natural immune system to restrict and destroy cancer cells
  30. hyperthermia
    thermal therapy uses temperatures greater than 106.7
  31. gene therapy
    technique for fighting cancer that involves replacing altered genes with normal genes, inhibiting defective genes, or intoducing substances that destroy defective genes or cancer cells.
  32. Chapter 19 Words to Know
  33. nasal septum
    wall that divides the internal nose into two cavities
  34. cilia
    hair-like processes who action moves substances like mucus to prevent irritation to and contamination of the lower airway
  35. paranasal sinuses
    extensions of the nasal cavity located in the surrounding facial bones
  36. frontal sinuses
    bony cavitites that lie wihtin the frontal bone that extends above the orbital cavities
  37. ethmoidal sinuses
    honecomb of small spaces contained in the ethmoid bone, located between the eyes.
  38. sphenoidal sinuses
    bony cavities that lie behind the nasal cavity
  39. maxillary sinuses
    cavities on either side of the nose in the maxillary bones; they are the largest sinuses and the most accessible to treatment.
  40. turbinates (conchae)
    bones that change the flow of inspired air to moisturize and warm it to a greater degree
  41. pharynx
    body structure that carries air from the nose to the larynx, and food from the mouth to the esophagus
  42. nasopharynx
    part of the pharynx that is near the nose and above the soft palate.
  43. oropharynx
    part of the pharynx that is near the mouth
  44. tonsils
    elliptically shaped lymphnoid tissue located on either side of the upper oropharynx that protect the body from infection.
  45. adenoids
    lymphoid tissue located in the nasopharynx that protect the body from infection
  46. larynx
    cartilaginous framework between the pharynx and the trachea whose primary function is to produce sound; it also protects the lower airway from foreign objects because of its ability to facilitate coughing.
  47. epiglottis
    cartilaginous valve flap that covers the opening to the larynx during swallowing
  48. glottis
    opening between the vocal cords in the larynx
  49. vocal cords
    folds of tissue within the larynx that vibrate and produce sound as air passes through
  50. trachea
    hollow tube composed of smooth muscle and supported by C-shape cartilage that transports air from the laryngeal pharynx to the bronchi and lungs
  51. carina
    lower part of the trachea
  52. bronchi
    left and right sides of the carina
  53. hilus
    entrance of the bronchi to the lungs
  54. bronchioles
    smaller subdivisions of the bronchi
  55. lungs
    paired elastic structures enclosed by the thoracic cage that contain the alveoli
  56. alveoli
    small, clustered sac that begins where the bronchioles end and is the location for the exchange of oxygen and CO2
  57. interstitium
    structure that lies between the alveoli and contains the pulmonary capillaries and elastic connective tissue
  58. diaphragm
    muscle that seperates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity.
  59. mediastinum
    wall that divides the thoracic cavity into two halves.
  60. pleura
    saclike serous membrane located around the lungs.
  61. visceral pleura
    saclike serous membrane that covers the lung surface
  62. parietal pleura
    saclike serous membrane that is the outter layer of the lungs.
  63. pleura space
    area containing serous fluid that separates and lubricates the visceral and parietal plurae
  64. respiration
    exchange of oygen and CO2 between atmospheric air and the blood and between the blood and the cells
  65. ventilation
    movement of air into and out of the respiratory tract
  66. diffusion
    process of oxygen and CO2 exchange through the alveolar-capillary membrane.
  67. perfusion
    supplying blood to cells, tissues, or organs
  68. thoracentesis
    aspiration of excess fluid or air from the pleural space.