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what are koch's postulates
- 1) in unhealthy person
- 2) isolated and grown in culture
- 3) taken from culture and injected into individual
- 4) isoalted from diseased animal, grown in culture and show to be same as original
What is the pattern and process of Koch's postulates?
- Pattern: certain diseases are infectious, can be passed from one to another
- process: transmissionand growth of crtain bacteria and viruses
what are methods for testing distributions, virulece and metabolic requirements for microbes?
direct sequencing and enrichment cultures
Why can bacteria and archaea live in wide array of environments?
morphological diversity and metabolic diversity
what are three ways bacteria and archaea obtain energy?
light (phototrophs), chemoorganotrophs (organic molecules), chemolithotrophs (inorganic molecules)
Way bacteria and archaea obtain carbon compounds?
autotrophs (make their own), heterotrophs (consume from environment)
what are the ecological importances of green algae and land plants?
provide ecosystem services (oxygen, build and hold soil, hold water, primary producers: convert energy in sunlight to chemiscal energy), provide food, shelter
How do plants deal with water loss?
cuticle, stomata, vascular tissues
describe the evolution of vascular tissues
- 1)simple water conducting cells (mosses)
- 2) first vascular tissue with lignin (ferns)
- 3) tracheids (ends with pits and secondary cell wall) -vascular plants
- 4) vessel elements: in gnetophytes and angiosperms
how do the monocots and dicots differ in cotyledon, vascular tissue, veins and petals?
- mono: 1, vascular tissue is scattered, parallel veins in leaves, petals in multiple of 3
- di: 2, vascular tissue in ciruclar arrangements, branched veins in leaves, petals in multiples of 4 or 3
What is the difference between gametophtes and sporophytes?
gametophytes are individuals in multicelluar haploid phase, while sporophytes are individuals in multicelluar diploid phase
what is the difference between spores and seeds?
seeds include both nutrients and embryo
when did the alternation of generation, thick walled spores, complex gametania begin?
where green alage breaks with non-vascular plants (MOSSES)
where did sporophyte dominated life cycle occur?
ferns (vascular seedless)
where is seeds and pollen developed?
which types of plants had sperms swim to eggs?
nonvascular and seedless vascular
what is adaptive radiation?
single lineage produces large number of descendant species adapted to a wide variety of habitats
What is the diversification of angiosperms assoicated with?
vessel elements, fruit and flowers
what are the main functions of roots?
anchors plant, takes in nutrients and water from the soil, stores materials, conducts water and selected ions to shoot
main function of shoot system?
harvest light and carbon dioxide from atmosphere and produce sugars
what is phenotype plasticity?
changes in structure of root/shoot system over time
how can roots be modified?
- 1) adventitious: develop from shot system instead of root system, roots are propped up for support
- 2) grow upward for gas exchange between root tissues and atmophere
how can shoot systems be modified?
thorns to protect, cactus stems store water, tubers store carbohydrates
two parts to a leaf?
blade and petiole
what are different types of leaves?
simple, compound, doubly compound, string leaves
What is phyllotaxy and what types of phyllotaxy is there?
arrangment of leaves; opposite, whorled, alternating or rosette
what are types of modified leaves?
- onion leaves store food
- cactus spines protect the stem
- aloe vera stores water
what types of systems are in primary growth?
- 1) dermal tissues
- 2) ground tissue ( storage, photosynethesis and choloroplasts)
- 3) vascular tissue system
what is the role of dermal tissue systems? what types of structures are in here?
protect root from water loss, diseases. Epidermal cells secrete cuticle, stomata and trichomes: protective hairlike appendages, keep leaf cool, provide barab and store toxic
What are the structure in vascular tissue system?
- xylem: main water and mineral conducting tissue (vessels and tracheids)
- phloem: main food conducting tissue (contains elongated sieve cells and sieve tube members)
- They are living cells! as opposed to the dead cells in xylem
What are the three zones of a root system?
- cellular division (divides)
- cellular elongation (most responsible for movement through soil, recently derived from meristematic tissues)
- maturation: older cells, develops into dermal...
what is the purpose of secondary growth
increases the width of plant body: increase amunt of conducting tissue and provide structural support
what do all animals have in common?
- heterotrophy: ingest their food, obtain carbon compounds from other organisms
- move under their own power
What does all animals except sponges have?
nerve cells (transmit signal) and muscle cells (contract)
what are ways to compare animals?
- -number of embryonic tissue layer
- -type of body symmetry and degree of cephalization
- -presence of coleom
- -how the earliest embryo developed
what does coelom allow for?
acts as hydrostatic skeleton, helps with movement
explain the difference betwen protostomes and deterostomes
- protostomes: mouth, blocks of mesoderm hollow out to form coelom (arthopids, mollusks and segmented worms)
- deterostomes: anus, pockets of mesoderm pinch off
what are the different types of feeding tactics?
- suspension: capture food by filtering out (sponges, clams): mechanisms that can trap food
- deposit: ingest organic materials deposited in soil or ocean floor (simple mouthparts and wormlike body shape)
- fluid: feed on liquids
- mass feeders: vary in tootch structure
what are the adapations that increase surface area?
flattening, branching, and folding
What are the three parts to the regulator system?
sensor, integrator, effector
How do animals exchange heat with environment?
what is the difference between endotherms and ectotherms?
endotherms produce their own heat, whereas ectotherms rely on heat from the environment
What are the advantages and disadvantages of being endoderm?
advantages: be in cold and night whether becuase high metabolic rate produces heat; disadvantages: less energy for reproduction, need large amounts of energy
What are examples of poikilotherms ectotherms?
freshwater invertebrates, most freshwater fish