lecture Chap 7 Skeleton

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  1. The Axial Skeleton
    Name it and function
    Consists of 80 bones

    • 3 major regions:
    • Skull, vertebral column, and thoracic cage

    • Functions:
    • -forms the longitudinal axis of the body
    • -supports the head, neck, and trunk
    • -protects the brain, spinal cord, and the organs in the thorax
  2. Keystone bone of face
    Sphenoid bone- articulates with all other cranial bones
  3. Ethmoid bone
    deepest bone in skull

    medial wall of orbits

    superior part of nasal septum
  4. Mandible
    largest, strongest bone of face

    Temporomandibular joint: only freely moveable joint in skull
  5. maxillae
    • keystone bone of face
    • -articulates with all other bones except mandible

    -inferior orbital fissure at junction of maxillae and sphenoid

    articulates with zygomatic bone at zygomatic process
  6. Nasal and Lacrimal Bones
    nasal bones: form bridhe of nose (fused medially)

    • lacrimal bones
    • -medial walls of orbits
    • -lacrimal fossa houses lacrimal sac
    • *allows tears to drain
  7. Orbits
    encases eyes and lacrimal glands

    eyes cushioned by fatty tissue

    sites of attachment for eye muscles

    formed by parts of 7 bones
  8. Nasal cavity
    • Roof, laterak walls, and floor formed by 4 parts of bones
    • 1. Ethmoid
    • 2. palantine bone (floor)
    • 3. Maxillary bones
    • 4. Inferior nasal conchae

    • nasal sexptum of bone and hyaline cartilage
    • 1. Ethmoid bone
    • 2. Vomer
    • 3. Anterior septal cartilage
  9. Paranasal Sinuses
    Drip mucus into nasal cavity

    lighten the skull

    enhance resonance of voice

    mucus lines, air filled sacs

    frontal, sphenoid, ehtmoid, and maxillary bones
  10. Hyoid bone
    Axial skeleton

    Does not articulate with any bone

    site of attachment for muscles of swallowing and speech
  11. vertebral column
    Transmits weight of trunk to lower limbs

    surrounds and protects spinal cord

    • C-7
    • T-12
    • L-5

    • S-5
    • C-4
  12. Vertebral column: curvatures
    Increase the resilience and flexibility of the spine

    • 2 Posteriorly concave--> C & L
    • 2 Posteriorly conved --> T and Cox

    • Abnormal:
    • Scoliosis (lateral curve)
    • Lordosis (swayback)
    • Kyphosis- (hunchback)
  13. vertebral ligaments
    • Anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments: from neck to sacrum
    • -Anterior: supports and prevents hyperextension (bending back)
    • -posterior: relatively weak, attaches only to discs, prevents hyperflexions (too forward)

    • Ligamentum Flavum:
    • -connects adjacent vertabrae
    • -elastic connective tissue
    • -recoils, very strong

    • Short ligaments:
    • -connect each vertebrae above and below
  14. Intervertebral discs
    • 1. Nucelus pulosus
    • -Inner gelatiunous nucleus that gives the disc its elastisicity and compressibility
    • 2. Anulus Fibrosis
    • -outer collar composed of collagen (superficially) and fibrocartilage (deep)
  15. C1 and C2 are special
    No intervertebral discs

    • C1 called atlas
    • -no body or spinous process
    • -articulate with occiptal condyles
    • -allows us to say "yes"

    • C2 called axis
    • -tooth called dens articulates at a pivot joint with C1
    • -allows us to say "no"
  16. Thoracic cage
    • composed of:
    • -thoracic vertabrae
    • -sternum
    • -ribs and their costal cartilages

    • Functions:
    • -protects vital organs of the thoracic cavity
    • -supports shoulder girdle and upper limbs
    • -provides attachments sites for many muscles, indluding intercostal muscles used during breathing
  17. Ribs
    • 1-7 are true ribs
    • 8-12 are false ribs
    • 11-12 are floating ribs

    8-10 sometimes called vertebrochondral ribs
  18. Appendicular skeleton
    Parts and function
    • Parts:
    • -bones of the limbs and their girdles

    • Function:
    • -locomotion
    • -manipulation of the enviornment
  19. Upper limb
    30 bones in upper limb

    • Humerus- largest bone of upper limb
    • -surgical neck most fractured spot
    • Ulna and Radius

    • Hand:
    • 8 carpals
    • 5 metacarpals
    • 14 Phalanges
  20. Lower limb
    carries the weight of the body

    subjected to exceptional forces

    • 3 segements:
    • -thigh:femur--largest, strongest bone in body
    • -leg: tib (2nd largest bone in body) and fib (nonweight bearing)
    • -foot: 7 tarsals, 5 metatarsals, 14 phalanges
  21. Arches of foot
    Arches are maintained by inerlocking foot bones, ligaments, and tendons

    Arches allow the foot to bear weight

    • 3 Arches:
    • -Lateral longitudial (cuboid is key stone)
    • -Medial Longitudial (talus is keystone
    • -TransverseImage Upload
  22. Developmental Aspects: fetal skull
    Infant skull has more bones than the adult skull

    Skull bones such as the mandible and fronta bones are unfuesed

    • At birth, bones are connected by fontanelles
    • - allows skull to be compressed slightly at birth
    • -unossified remnants of fobrous membranes between fetal skull bones
    • -4 fontanelles: anterior, posterior, mastoid and sphenoid
    • Image Upload
  23. Developmental Aspects
    Growth rates
    At birth, the craniu, is huge relative to the face

    at 9 mo of age, cranium is about 1/2 adult size (Adult size by 9yrs)

    Mandible and maxillae are foreshortened but lengthen with age

    The arms and legs grow faster than the head and trunk, leading to adult proportions
  24. Developmental Aspects
    Spinal Curvature
    • Thoracis and sacral curvatures are obvious at birth
    • -these primary curvatures give C shape
    • -convex posteriorly

    • Secondary curvatures:
    • -cervical and lumbar-convex anteriorly
    • -appear as a child develops (Raises head, learns to walk)
  25. Developmental Aspects
    Old age
    • Intervertebral discs become thin, less hydrated, and less elastic
    • -risk of disk herniation increases

    Loss of stature by several centimeters is common by age 55

    Costal cartilates ossify, causing thorax to become rigid

    • All bones lose mass
    • -more porous= easier fracture
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lecture Chap 7 Skeleton
2012-03-02 04:21:11
lecture Chap Skeleton

lecture Chap 7 Skeleton
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