A set of individuals who are organized to promote a shared political interest.
Most organized interest
Seeking influence through official Contacts.
A small and informal but relatively stable group of well-positioned legislators, executives, and loddyist who w=seek to promote policies beneficial to a particular interest.
Grass roots lobbying
Grassroots lobbying is when everyday citizens contact their own legislators to try to influence legislation and policy.
Committee with a continued existence, formed to do its assigned work on an ongoing basis. Budgetand finance committees generally are standing committees.
Speaker of the House
is the presiding officer of the United States House of Representatives. Nancy Pelosi is the present Speaker of the House.
is a legislative maneuver in federal lawmaking that allows the President to indirectly veto a bill.
How many Senators and
House Rules Committee
An influential standing committee of the US House of Representatives which sets the timetable of the House, and the conditions under which debate takes place.
is a legal case establishing a principle or rule that a court or other judicial body utilizes when deciding subsequent cases with similar issues or facts.
is the doctrine in democratic theory under which legislative and executive actions are subject to review, and possible invalidation, by the judiciary.
Structure of federal court system
is a form of boundary delimitation (redistricting) in which electoral district or constituency boundaries are deliberately modified for electoral purposes, thereby producing a contorted or unusual shape.
Redistribution of representation in a legislative body, especially the periodic reallotment of U.S. congressional seats according to changes in the census figures as required by the Constitution.
Pork barrel legislation
is a derogatory term referring to appropriation of government spending for localized projects secured solely or primarily to bring money to a representative's district.
is the legal principle by which judges are obliged to obey the set-up precedents established by prior decisions.
also called closure and sometimes a guillotine, is a motion or process aimed at bringing debate to a quick end.
is the right to hear a case for the first time as opposed to appellate jurisdiction when a court has the right to review a lower court's decision. also know as trial courts.
Writ of mandamus
is the name of one of the prerogative writs in the common law, and is "issued by a superior court to compel a lower court or a government officer to perform mandatory or purely ministerial duties correctly.
is the power of a court to review decisions and change outcomes of decisions of lower courts.
Writ of certiorari
an order by a higher court directing a lower court, tribunal, or public authority to send the record in a given case for review.
is a form of obstruction in a legislature or other decision-making body whereby a lone member can elect to delay or entirely prevent a vote on a proposal.
the issue of whether judicial decisions will be respected and obeyed
when is supreme court in session?
1 october - end of june
most well-financed interest group
Advantages of economic interest group
Access to Finical records
The organization through which an interest group raises and distributes funds for election purposes. By law, the funds must be raised through volunteer contributions.
an informal and relatively open network of public officials and lobbyist who have a common interest in a given area and who are brought together by a proposed policy in that are they disband after the issue is resolved.
Temporary committees formed to bargain over the differences in the house and senate versions of a bill. A conference committee members are usually appointed from the house and senate standing committees that originally worried on the bill.
Rep and Sen. Age?
Major responsibility of congress
to make laws
bans amendments to a bill on the house floor with the exceptions of committee amendments.
Appointment of federal judges
by president with senate approval
How do case reach the supreme court?
if it violates the constitutional rights of a citizen
How does a bill become a law
2. committee action
3. floor action
4. conference action
was an American statesman and jurist who shaped American constitutional law and made the Supreme Court a center of power. Marshall was Chief Justice of the United States, serving from January 31, 1801, until his death in 1835.
was an American jurist and the first African American to serve on the Supreme Court of the United States. Before becoming a judge, he was a lawyer who was best remembered for his high success rate in arguing before the Supreme Court and for the victory in Brown v. Board of Education.