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  1. Functions of blood (transport)
    *gas transport*O2 and CO2,nutrients from food,ions na+,k+,cl-,Ca2+,Mg2+,enzymes,waste products hormones
  2. functions of blood (regulation)
    osmotic pressure,ph,temp
  3. functions of blood (protection)
    blood loss,immune system-protects against pathogens(disease causing organisms)
  4. under what circumstances would you collect blood from an artery using an arterial stick which is the common artery
    (common to do radial using arterial stick) 02 content measure
  5. what are the advantages to collect blood from a vein
    1) easy to locate 2)lower pressure(seal sooner) 3)have thinner wall(easier to puncture)
  6. characteristics of blood (volume) and (ph)
    • volume females 4-5L males 5-6L
    • ph 7.35-7.45(slightly alkaline)
    • above 7.45acidosis
    • below 7.35alkalosis
  7. chartacteristics of blood (body weight)(viscosity) (temp)
    • 8% of body weight is blood
    • 5-8 times more viscous than water
    • temp 38degreesC 100.4 F*blood is warmer than body*
  8. blood chartacteristics (hypovolemic) (hypervolemic)
    • hypovolemic:lowblood vol.(bleeding dehydration)
    • hypervolemic(due to over hydration and some blood disorders) *hyper less common*
  9. portion of blood composed of plasma
    55% of blood volume is plasma
  10. how much plasma is water
    91.5 percent is water is plasma
  11. what solutes would be found suspened in plasma?
    electrolyts=ions,nutrients,02 and co2,hormones,enzymes,metabolic wastes
  12. what does fibrinogen do?
    fibrinogen clots
  13. what plasma protein is part of the immune system?
    immunogolbins IgG IgA IgE IgD IgM spells GAMED
  14. what plasma protein controls most of the exchange?
    Albumins controls most of the exchange in the capillary
  15. Albumins carry what?
    fatty acids and steroid hormones
  16. Albumins are found in and determine most of what?
    found in egg whites and determine most of BCOP
    • metalioproteins-transport metal ions
    • apolipoproteins-fat transports
  18. what portion of blood is composed of formed elements
    45percent is composed of formed elements
  19. how many erythrocytes are in a microliter of blood
    4.8-5.4 million are in microliter of blood
  20. what r the percentages of the wbc's?
  21. what is a hemocytoblast?
    blood cell stem cell can differntiate into any blood cell
  22. what does colony forming units play in the development of formed elements?
    act as signaling molecule to direct differemtiation
  23. what precurser cells will give rise to elements?(megakaryoblast)
    megakaryocytes breaks up into thromocytes aka platelets
  24. what precurser cells will give rise to elements?(proerythroblast)
    mature into erythrocytes
  25. what precurser cells will give rise to elements? MYELOBLAST
    eosinophil, neutrophiler, basophil
  26. what precurser cells will give rise to elements? MONOBLAST
    monocytes aka macrophage
  27. what precurser cells will give rise to elements? LYPHOBLAST
  28. how is an agranulocte different from a granulocyte?
    • agranulocyte have no visual in cytoplasm
    • granulocytes have visual in cytoplasm
  29. granulocyte leukocytes
    eosinophil basophils neutrolphil
  30. agranual leukocytes
    monocytes and lymphocytes
  31. diapedesis is
    emigration process by which WBC leaves blood and moves into interstitial fluid
  32. how chemotaxis affect leukocytes
    chemical attraction to wbc
  33. selectins are?
    on endotheial cell act as an adhesian molecule to grab on wbc
  34. integrins are
    on WBC use them to tether to the endotheial cell and roll down surface
  35. how does the lack of nucleus affect erythrocytes?
    no dna no mitosis,dont make proteins,little no cell repair,no mitrochondria,use glycolysis to make atp (2 atp/glucose) *no mitro cause it would use all 02 to make energy*
  36. why the shape of rbc is important
    • donut biconcave disc
    • 1allows to stack on top
    • 2narrow area in the middle allows them to fold twist and bend 2 get thru small vessels
    • 3high surface area to volume ratio
  37. how many molecules of hemoglobin will each erythrocyte contain?
    250-280million hemoglobin molecules
  38. how many oxygen can a single hemoglobin bind?
    4 oxygen molecules hemoglobin carries
  39. which component of hemoglobin is composed of protein
    globin units is composed of protein
  40. which component of hemoglobin will give blood its color?
    heme gives blood its color
  41. what metal ion is within hemoglobin?
  42. what gases bound to what components of hemoglobin
    heme o2 globin co2
  43. types of conditions decrease in blood oxygen concentration
    hypoxia,blood loss, anemia, increased elevation
  44. which hormones will increase the production of rbc's
  45. how does erythropoeitin act
    receptors in kidneys detect low O2->erythropoeitin released->1incresed production of proerythroblasts 2increased rate of maturity
  46. how long do erythrocytes live
    120days erythrocytes live
  47. where in the body are erythrocytes broken down?
    macrophage in spleen liver or bone marrow
  48. what does globin break down into?
    amino acids
  49. what role does transferrin play during the break down of erythrocytes
    takes heme-> transferrin + fe3 = ferritin
  50. what is biliverdin
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