Philosophy exam #2
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According to your notes, what are the two preliminary questions to ask of any philosophical question?
- 1.What exactly it the question?
- 2.How important is the question?
How has knowledge traditionally been defined?
Knowledge has traditionally been defined as justified true belief.
According to Rationalism, what is the primary and best source of knowledge?
Reason (not sense experience) is the primary and best source of knowledge about reality.
According to Empiricism, what is the only source of genuine knowledge?
The only source of genuine knowledge is sense experience.
What is the difference between 'a priori' and 'a posteriori' knowledge?
- 'a posteriori' - Knowledge that comes to us from sense experience, through the
- five senses.
- 'a priori' - Knowledge that comes to us independent of sense experience.
What is G.E. Moore's defense of common sense?
- It is self evident that the external world exists.( I have two hands. )
- “I can know things which I cannot prove.”
- Common sense, should be considered innocent until proven guilty.
What is the Correspondence Theory of Truth?
A proposition is true if it corresponds to the facts.
There is more involved in being able to find the truth than being able to reason properly. What were the five suggestions given for helping one find the truth?
- 1.Being aware of our potential emotional biases.
- 2.Being aware of the background beliefs of people we get information from.
- 3.Being aware of the opposing view’s arguments.
- 4.Getting the opposing view directly from those who hold it.
- 5.Being willing to admit that we were wrong.
What is Metaphysical Materialism?
Matter and the laws of physics make up and govern all that exists.
What is Occam's Razor?
(Thinks physicalism if true) - The simplest explanation is the best explanation.
What is Parallelism?
- (Preestablished harmony) Leibniz (1646-1715)
- God established two causal series that coincide: one mental and one physical.
What is the difference between qualitative identity and numerical identity?
- Qualitative identity - The question we will consider is not, what is it for two different things to be identical
- Numerical identity - The question is what is it to be the same thing over change and time
What is the 'continuity over time' criterion of numerical identity?
Two things are the same if they are connected by a succession of spatio-temporal events.
What is the Psychological States Criterion of personal identity?
A person is the same person if they have a continuous set of memories. (John Locke)
What is the Soul criterion of personal identity?
There is a nonmaterial self that is distinct from ones memories or other particular mental contents. It is this nonmaterial self that has the memories and mental contents.
What is the Platonic-Cartesian view of immortality?
- There is immortality.
- A person is essentially spiritual (mental).
- The body is not an essential part of a human being.
- At death the soul (mind/consciousness) continues and the body perishes.
What is the Christian view of immortality?
- There is immortality. The person is mind (soul) and body. They are a unified whole.
- The soul is not separated from “the body” in the afterlife.
- At or some time after death a new glorified body, related to but different from our body, replaces our body.
- The person, mind (soul) and body continues on.
5 arguments claiming that annihilation is not a bad thing - Give 2 arguments and responses.
- 1. Since when we are dead we don’t experience it, it is not a bad thing.
- response - Things can be bad even if we do not experience them as bad.
- 2. Immortality would be bad, therefore annihilation would not be bad.
- response - One option being bad does not make the other one not bad. Both possibilities could be bad.
What were the three potential sources of evidence for immortality discussed in class?
- Philosophical Argument
- Near Death Experiences
How is the traditional western notion of God defined?
Personal, Morally perfect, All powerful, All knowing, Transcendent, Creator of the physical universe
What is the basic form of all Cosmological Arguments?
Something outside the universe is required to explain the existence of the universe.
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