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what are the organs of the neck?
- salivary glands
- thyroid gland
- cervical lymph nodes
describe the pharynx
- funnel shaped
- 12 cm long muscular tube
- opening for respiratory and digestive organs
where does the pharynx start and end?
base of skull extending inferior to esophagus
what are the 3 sections of the pharynx?
describe the nasopharynx
- superior- nasal cavity
- passage of air from nasal cavity to larynx
what are the bounderies of the nasopharynx?
- posterior- clivus/upper cervical spine
- inferior- soft palate, uvula
- lateral wall- post/inf nasal conchae
- opening of eustachain tube- middle ear
describe the oropharynx
- posterior oral cavity
- contains lymphoid tissue- palatine and lingual tonsils
what seperates the oropharynx from the larynx?
what is the valleculae and where is it located?
- pouch like openings, foreign objects can lodge
where does the laryngopharynx start and end?
- from oropharynx between hyod bone and esophagus/larynx
- at the cricoid cartilage it becomes the esophagus
- piriform sinuses depressions that divert food from larynx
what is the larynx?
- bony skeleton- voice box
- beginning of respiratory pathway
what does the larynx surround and protect?
what are the 3 cartilages that make up the larynx?
- cricoid- ring at base of larynx on which other cartilages rest- junction of larynx/trachea and beginning of esophagus
which cartilage of the larynx is the longest and most superior?
what is the anterior lamina of the thyroid cartilage called?
what is posterior to the adam's apple and what does it do?
- folds back over the larynx to prevent solids from entering the respiratory tract during swallowing
where does the esophagus start and end?
laryngopharynx to cardiac orifice of stomach
where is the esophagus located?
posterior to cricoid cartilage and descends through thoracic cavity between traches and anterior longitudinal ligament of vertebrae
what is the opening in the diaphragm where the esophagus travel through called?
what are the two spincters of the esophagus called and what do they do?
- esophageal- prevents air at entrance
- cardiac- prevents reflux from stomach
what is the condition that happens to the esophagus when portal hypertension is present?
what is the trachea?
- extend from larynx to lungs
where is the trachea located? anterior or posterior to esophagus?
anterior to esophagus
the trachea bifurcates into the right and left mainstem bronchi around what level and what is it called?
what are the salivary glands for?
- produce and empty saliva into the oral cavity by ducts
- begin the digestion process
what are the 3 salivary glands?
- parotid- largest, anterior to auricle
- submandibular- border post half of mandible- to hyoid bone
- sublingual- smalles, lie under the tongue
what virus attacks salivary glands?
what is the thryoid gland?
- endocrine gland
- located at level of cricoid cartilage
- two lobes joined together by an isthmus
what does the thyroid gland excrete?
- thryoxine (T4)- body growth/ metabolism
- triiodothyronine (T3)- growth/metabolism
- calcitonin- decrease blood calcium to promote bone formation. controlled by the parathyroid glands which are posterior surface of thyroid lobes (4 total)
describe the cervical lymph nodes
- atleast 1/3 of the body's total nodes
- about 75 on each side of the neck
- lymph vessesl carry fluid from interstitial spaces to the regional lymph nodes that filter the lymph fluid- before emptying into the venous blood supply
what is the sternocleidomastoid muscle?
- divides the nect into anterior and posterior triangles
- originate from the sternum and clavicle and inserts on the mastoid tip of temporal bone
- turns the head and flexes the neck
What are the muscles of the anterior angle or the throat?
- infrahyoid- called strap muscles
- they look like ribbons extending inferiorly on the anterior neck
what are the posterior triangle muscles?
- splenius capitis
- levator scapulae
- anterior, middle, posterior scalene