S2M2 I/M

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sweetlu
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139154
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S2M2 I/M
Updated:
2012-03-04 15:53:29
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S2M2 I/M
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  1. antigen sampling p/w
    • 1- dendritic cell p/w- direct sampling of antigen in lumen by a dendritic cell (APC), then presentation
    • 2- M cell p/w- transcytosis of antigen to GALT
    • 3- enterocyte p/w- dead end p/w, major factor for induction of tolerance
  2. Paneth cells
    • - in intestinal crypts
    • - release definsins that kill micro organisms
  3. protozoa types
    -amoebae (rhizopoda, sarcodina)- pseudopodal motility

    -flagellate (mastigophora)- flagellate motility

    - ciliates (ciliata)- ciliate motility

    -sporozoa (sporozoa)- gliding motility
  4. amoebiasis
    • -entamoeba histolytica
    • - mature cyst ingested
    • -initail infection GIT=> diarrhea/dysentary
    • - secondary infection- liver, heart,brain,lungs
    • - trophozoite-single round nucleus with small central karyosome
    • - cyst- 4 nuclei and 2 chromotonal bars
  5. travellers diarrhea
    • - flagellate, giardia infection (usually g. lamblia)
    • - cyst ingested in H2O
    • - intestinal infection only=> explosive, foul smelling, fatty diarrhea
    • - trophozioite resembles a face (owl)
  6. balantidum coli
    • - intestinal ciliate infection seen in rural farming areas
    • -GIT only
  7. cryptosporidium parvum/homini
    • - intestinal sporozoa prominent in US (swimming pools)
    • - oocyst ingested (acid fast)
    • - self limiting in immuno competent
    • - GIT only=> severe diarrhea
    • - sexual and asexual stages
  8. reproduction types
    - sporogony- sexual

    -schizogony- asexual
  9. trichomonas vaginalis
    • - urogenital flagellate
    • - very motile
    • - only sexual transmission
    • - Dx- vaginal smear wet prep
  10. Naegleria fowleri
    • - causes primary amoebic encephalitis
    • - enter through olfactory epithelium
    • - dirty stagnant water
    • - flagellated trophozoite in CSF
  11. Acanthamoeba culbertsoni
    • - causes granulamtous encephalitis in immunocompromised
    • - can cause eye lesions
    • - enter thru LRT or broken skin
  12. amastigote
    • - insect born haemoflagellate
    • -found within cell
  13. trypomastigote
    • - insect borne haemoflagellate
    • - found outside cell in blood
  14. Trypanosoma gambiense
    • - African sleeping sickness
    • - vector- tsetse fly
    • - W Africa
  15. Trypanosoma rhodiense
    • - African sleeping sickness
    • - vector- tsetse fly
    • - E Africa (Zimbabwe)
  16. Trypanosoma cruzi
    • -Chagas disease (american trypanosomiasis)
    • - heart and GIT typicall affected
    • -vector- reduviid bug
    • - Dx- bioby finds amastigote(within cell) in tissue
  17. Leishmania
    • - causes leishmaniasis (L. donovanni causes visceral form, most serious)
    • - vector- sand fly
  18. tissue sporozoa
    - Plasmodium spp. - blood and tissue, malaria

    - Babeisa spp- blood, babesiosis

    - Toxoplasmosis- tissue, toxoplasmosis
  19. malaria
    • - Plasmodium (vivax/falciparum)
    • - def host- mosquito (anopheles) inject sporozoite, travels to liver first then RBC
    • - int host- vertabrates
  20. babesiosis
    • - blood only
    • - easily confused with malaria
    • - vector: tick
  21. toxoplasmosis
    • - toxoplasmosa gondii
    • - def host- cat
    • - int host- human
    • - can be transmitted to fetus (why pregos are not supposed to handle cat litter )
  22. trematode
    • - flat worm fluke
    • - def host- human- eggs released
    • - 1 int- snail- cercariae released
    • -2 int- crustacean- metacercariae released(form ingested by humans)
    • - adults live in human lung or liver
  23. Paragonimus westermanii
    • -flatworm
    • - infects lung
    • - 2IH- crab
  24. Clonorchis sinensis
    • - flatworm
    • - infects liver
    • - 2IH- fish
  25. Fasciola hepatica
    • - flatworm
    • - infects liver
    • - 2IH- plants/vegetables
  26. Heterophyes heterophyes
    • - flatworm
    • - infects intestine
    • - 2IH- fish
  27. Fasciolopsis buski
    • - flat worm
    • - infects intestine
    • - 2IH- plants/vegetables
  28. Diphylobothrum latum
    • - fish tapeworm
    • - can grow up to 40 feet
    • - ingestion of raw fish
    • - can cause anemia
  29. Taeniasis
    • - tapeworm
    • - T. saginata- beef- intestinal
    • - T. solium- pork- intestinal and tissue
    • - dx- eggs/proglottids in human feces
  30. Ascaris lumbicoides
    • - primary roundworm infectionworldwide
    • - intestinal nematode
    • - eggs ingested
    • - dx- eggs in feces
    • - one of the most common human infections worldwide
  31. Strongyloides stercoralis
    • - threadworm
    • - roundworm intestinal nematode
    • - larvae enter skin
    • - ground itch
    • - eggs in stool
  32. Ancylostoma
    • - hook worm
    • - intestinal nematode
    • - larvae enter skin
    • - ground itch
  33. Enterobius vermicularis
    • - pin worm (PinX target)
    • - roundworm intestinal nematode
    • - eggs around anus cause anal itch
    • - scotch tape sample
  34. trichuris
    • - whip worm
    • - roundworm intestinal nematode
    • - eggs ingested
    • - rectal prolapse
  35. Trichinella
    • - pork worm
    • - roundworm intestinal nematode
    • - larvae incyst in muscle
    • - dx- muscle biopsy
    • - dead end(no external phase)- transmitted by carnivorism
  36. necator
    • - hook worm
    • - rundworm intestinal nematode
  37. Schistosomiasis
    • -blood fluke (flat worm)
    • -S. mansoni- direct penetration, intestinal, huge spine

    - S.japonicum- intestinal

    - S. hematobium- urinary=> blood in urine
  38. elephantitis
    • - Wuchereria spp and Brugia spp (nematodes)
    • - vector- mosquito
    • -nematode
  39. Loa loa
    • - swellings
    • - vector- deer fly
    • - nematode
  40. river blindness
    • - Onchocerca colculus
    • - vector- black fly
    • -nematode
    • - dx- larvae in skin snip
  41. Dracunculus medinensis
    • - nematode
    • - causes skin ulcers
    • - vector- water flea

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