Path MT I

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HLW
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139169
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Path MT I
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2012-03-02 16:47:02
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Path MT I
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  1. Autonomous hypersecretion due to hyperactivity (primary hyperfunction) of an endocrine gland can be due to what two things?
    • Tumor
    • Hyperplasia of gland
  2. Secondary hyperfunction in an endocrine gland is usually due to what?
    Lesion in one organ secreting excess trophic hormone leading to excess stimulation of target organ
  3. Excess secretion of peptides similar to hormones causing hyperactivity can be caused by what?
    Non-endocrine neoplasms (Adenocarcinoma or anal sacs)
  4. What are some examples of iatrogenic syndromes of hormone excess?
    • Corticosteroid administration
    • Excessive insulin
    • Excess T4 and T3
    • Progestogens to dogs
  5. What are three possibilities responsible for primary hypofunction of an endocrine gland?
    • Destruction of secretory cells
    • Failure of development
    • Genetic/biochemical defect
  6. What can be due to secondary hypofunction of an endocrine gland?
    Lesion in one organ interfering with the secretion of of trophic hormone
  7. What are two explanations for endocrine dysfunction due to failure of target-cell response?
    • Alteration in hormone receptors on the cell surface
    • Lack of adenyl cyclase in the cell membrane
  8. In what breeds of dogs is it common to find pituitary cysts and pituitary dwarfism?
    • German shepherd dog
    • Spitz
    • Toy pinscher
    • Carelian bear dog
  9. What is pituitary cysts and pituitary dwarfism due to?
    Failure of the oropharyngeal ectoderm of Rathke's pouch to differentiate into the pars distalis
  10. What lesions are associated with pituitary cysts and dwarfism?
    • Multiloculated cyst in the sella turcica
    • Absence of the adenohypophysis
  11. What clinical signs are associated with pituitary cysts and dwarfism?
    • Slower growth and stunting
    • Bilaterally symmetric alopecia
    • Progressive hyperpigmentation of the skin
  12. If a tumor is producing trophic hormones that stimulate target organs, how is it described?
    Functional
  13. If a tumor is destructive to adjacent structures causing hypoactivity of an endocrine gland, how is it described?
    Nonfunctional
  14. What are the most common endocrine gland tumors of adults?
    Adenomas and carcinomas
  15. What are the most common endocrine tumors of younger animals?
    Craniopharyngiomas
  16. What is the most common pituitary neoplasm in horses?
    Adenoma of the pars intermedia
  17. What is the second most common pituitary neoplasm of the dog?
    Adenoma of the pars intermedia
  18. What functionally active tumor is derived from corticotroph cells in the pars distalis or the pars intermedia of dogs and is common in adult aged boxers, boston terriers and dachshunds?
    ACTH-secreting (corticotroph) adenoma (results in Cushing's disease)
  19. In what animals is endocrinologically inactive chromophobe adenoma usually seen in?
    • Dogs
    • Cats
    • Laboratory rodents
    • Parakeets
  20. What clinical signs are associated with endocrinologically inactive chromophobe adenoma?
    • Decreased spontaneous activity
    • Incoordination
    • Weakness and collapse after exercise
    • blindness and dilated, fixed pupils
  21. What benign tumor is derived from the epithelial remnants of Rathke's pouch and causes abnormal secretion of somatotropin (growth hormone)?
    Craniopharyngioma (intracranial germ cell tumor)
  22. What clinical signs are associated with craniopharyngioma (intracranial germ cell tumor)?
    • Failure to attain somatic maturation
    • Interference with release and synthesis of ADH
    • Deficits in cranial nerve function
    • Hypothyroidism
    • Hypoadrenocorticism
  23. What type of inflammation is seen sporadically in ruminants and swine?
    Pituitary abscesses
  24. What is the etiology behind pituitary abscesses, common in ruminants and swine?
    • Arcanobacterium pyogenes
    • Mycotic agents
  25. What can a lesion in the neurohypophysis that interferes with ADH synthesis or secretion cause?
    Central diabetes insipidus
  26. What form of diabetes insipidus is a hereditary defect resulting in lack of adenylate cyclase in the plasma membrane of epithelial cells in the distal tubules and collecting ducts?
    Nephrogenic form
  27. Hemorrhage of the adrenal cortex can be due to what three things?
    • Trauma in newborn
    • Severe stress
    • Septicemia/toxemia
  28. What syndrome of the adrenal cortex is usually a fatal consequence of overwhelming sepsis but can also be due gram-positive organisms, anticoagulant therapy and trauma?
    Waterhouse-Friderischsen syndrome
  29. In what animals is nodular hyperplasia of the adrenal cortex seen in?
    • Old horses
    • Dogs
    • Cats
    • Female ferrets
  30. What is the result of nodular hyperplasia of the adrenal cortex?
    • Androgen excess leading to:
    • Greater muscle mass
    • Well-developed crest
    • Hypertrophy of the clitoris
    • Involution of the mammary gland
  31. In what animals are cortical adenomas of the adrenal cortex seen in?
    • Older dogs
    • Castrated male goats
    • Neutered ferrets
  32. In what hyperplasia/neoplasia of the adrenal cortex do you see multiple small foci, usually bilateral and without encapsulation?
    Nodular hyperplasia
  33. In what hyperplasia/neoplasia of the adrenal cortex do you see larger, unilateral and encapsulated growths?
    Cortical adenomas
  34. In what animals are coritcal carcinomas usually seen in?
    • Cattle
    • Old dogs
    • Ferrets
  35. What type of tumor of the adrenal cortex is larger than adenomas, often bilateral, and may invade the vena cava?
    Cortical carcinoma
  36. What is the second most common neoplasm reported in adult ferrets?
    Adrenal gland neoplasms
  37. What clinical signs are associated with functional proliferative lesions in ferrets?
    • Vulvular enlargement
    • Bilaterally symmetrical alopecia
    • PU/PD
    • Increased plasma concentrations of estradiol-17B
  38. What percent of Cushing's disease is due to primary hyperadrenocorticism?
    10-15%
  39. What percent of the Cushing's disease is due to secondary hyperadrenocorticism?
    80%
  40. What percent of Cushing's disease is due to pharmacological (iatrogenic) hyperadrenocorticism?
    5-10%
  41. What possible pathogenetic mechanisms can cause Cushing's disease?
    • Primary hyperadrenocorticism
    • Secondary hyperadrenocorticism
    • Pharmacological (iatrogenic) hyperadrenocorticism
    • Ectopic ACTH syndrome
  42. What clinical signs are associated with Cushing's disease (hypercortisolism)?
    • Hyperglycemia
    • PU/PD
    • Polyphagia
    • Hepatomegaly
    • Pendulous abdomen
    • Wasting
    • Skin lesions
    • Bilateral symmetric alopecia
    • Calcinosis cutis
    • Eosinopenia and lymphopenia
  43. What are some pathogenetic mechanisms responsible for primary hypoadrenocorticism?
    • Bilateral idiopathic adrenal cortical atrophy
    • Bilateral destruction of adrenal glands
    • Iatrogenic
  44. What primary hypoadrenocorticism involves the destruction of all three cortical layers, a deficiency in production of all cortical hormones, and is see most frequently in young to middle-aged female dogs?
    Bilateral idiopathic adrenal cortical atrophy
  45. What primary hypoadrenocorticism is due to adrenalitis, infarction, hemorrhage and tumors?
    Bilateral destruction of adrenal glands
  46. What type of primary hypoadrenocorticism involves sudden withdrawal following prolonged excessive administration of synthetic steroids?
    Iatrogenic
  47. What must be done for a dog to usually get Addison's disease (hypoadrenocorticism)?
    All three layers of the adrenal gland are destroyed
  48. ACTH deficiency from a destructive pituitary lesion usually only leads to which two zones in the adrenal gland to be destroyed (mineralocorticoids are not affected)?
    • Zona fasciculata
    • Zona reticularis
  49. What clinical signs are usually seen with hypoadrenocorticism?
    • Lethargy
    • Stress intolerance
    • Bradycardia
    • Hyponatremia and hyperkalemia
    • Hypernaturia and hyperchoriduria
    • Skin may be hyperpigmented
  50. What is the most common neoplasm of the adrenal medulla in animals?
    Pheochromocytoma
  51. In which animals i pheochromocytoma usually seen?
    • Dogs
    • Cattle
  52. What pathogenetic mechanisms can cause goiter (hyperplasia of the thyroid gland)?
    • Iodine deficient diet
    • Excess dietary iodide
    • Goitrogenic compounds (Brassica and Cruciferae plants)
    • Genetic enzyme defects
  53. What type of goiter do you see in young adult and adult animals following the correction of the problem in diffuse hyperplastic goiter?
    Colloid goiter
  54. What type of goiter do you see in young animals born to dams on iodine deficient diet or excess iodine, fed goitrogenic substances or plants of Brassicacceae family?
    Diffuse hyperplastic goiter
  55. What type of goiter is an incidental lesion in old animals (horses, cats, and dogs) and is nonfunctional in most animals except cats?
    Multifocal nodular hyperplasia
  56. What type of goiter is the result of an autosomal recessive disorder in some breeds of sheep, Afrikander cattle, and Saanen dwarf goats?
    Congenital dyshormonogenetic goiter

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