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n what animal is renal ectopia (malposition of the kidney) more common and why?
Common in pigs because of Vitamin A deficiency in sows
What does renal ectopia predispose an animal to?
What is the disorganized development of renal parenchyma due to anomalous differentiation?
In what species is renal dysplasia common?
What are some possible reasons of renal dysplasia?
- Partial degeneration or partial unresponsiveness of the blastema to the uretal bud
- Autosomal dominant trait
- Hypovitaminosis A
- Familial disease
What type of kidney is usually small, misshapen and fibrosed with thick-walled cysts and tortuous ureters?
What is a possible sequelae to renal dysplasia?
Renal cysts are common in which species of animals?
What are four possible mechanisms of renal cysts development?
- Obstruction of nephrons
- Modification in extracellular matrix and cell-matrix interactions
- Focal tubular epithelial cell hyperplasia
- Dedifferentiation of tubular epithelial cells
The congenital form of polycystic kidney disease is associated with what?
- Cystic bile ducts
- Bile duct proliferation
- Pancreatic cysts
In what species of animals do you see polycystic kidney disease?
What kind of disease occurs in related animals with a higher frequency than that which would be expected by chance?
In what breeds of dogs is juvenile nephropathy common?
- Alasakan malamute
- Miniature schnauzer
- German shepherd
At what age is juvenile nephropathy usually seen in dogs and what are the clinical signs?
What are the main manifestations of progressive juvenile nephropathy?
- Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis
- Tubular disease of unknown cause
- Renal dysplasia
In the Doberman pinscher, what is the primary lesion of juvenile nephropathy?
Glomerulopathy (membranoproliferaitve glomerulonephritis)
In Norwegian elkhounds, what is the primary lesion of juvenile nephropathy?
Idiopathic tubular disorder
In what breeds of dogs is the primary lesion of juvenile nephropathy renal dysplasia?
- Lhasa apsos
- Shih Tzus
- Wheaten terriers
- Standard poodles
- Golden retrievers
What does the initial lesion of a renal infarct look like?
Coagulative necrosis that will progress to a typical infarct (non septic thrombi) or abscess (septic thrombi)
What are renal infarcts usually due to?
- Mural thrombosis
- Aseptic emboli
How does a recent renal infarct look grossly?
Swollen and red
How does an old renal infarct appear grossly?
Firm, pale yellow-gray and shrunken
What type of renal necrosis is a bilateral lesion that occurs in all animal species, expecially in association with gram-negative septicemias or endotoxemias?
Renal cortical necrosis
What type of necrosis is related to endotoxin-induced endothelial damage, activation of the extrinsic clotting mechanism, and widespread capillary thrombosis?
Renal cortical necrosis
What type of renal necrosis appears diffusely pale with a zone a hyperemia separating the necrotic cortex from the viable medulla?
Renal cortical necrosis
How does treatment with NSAIDs cause papillary necrosis?
Reduces the production of prostaglandins (PGE2) by medullary interstitial cells resulting in vasoconstriction on arterioles
Dilatation of the renal pelvis because of obstruction of urine outflow causing a slow or intermittent increase in pelvic pressure is termed what?
What are some possible etiologies behind hydronephrosis?
- Chronic inflammation
- Uretal or urethral neoplasia
- Neurogenic functional disorders
What type of glomerulitis involves bacteria being lodged in random glomeruli and to lesser extent in interstitial capillaries forming multiple foci of inflammation?
What are some specific examples of suppurative glomerulitis?
- Actinobacillus equuli in foals
- Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae in pigs
- Corynebacterium pseudotubercolosis in sheep and goats
What type of glomerulonephritis appears as multifocal random, raised, tan pinpoint foci are seen subcapsularly and on cut surface?
What are the two possible mechanisms of immune-mediated glomerulonephritis?
- Deposition of soluble immune complexes within the glomeruli
- Antibodies directed against antigens within the glomerular basement membrane
What are some possible eitologies behind immune mediated glomerulonephritis?
- Persistent infections
- Specific viral infections (FLV FIP virus)
- Chronic bacterial infections
- Chronic parasitism
- Autoimmune disease
- Familial (Bernese mountain dogs)
How does immune mediated glomerulonephritis appear grossly?
Glomeruli appear as pinpoint red dots on cut surface of cortex (cannot use this in horses)
What is the most common form of immune complex glomerulonephritis in cats?
What is the most common form of immune complex glomerulonephritis in dogs?
How is immune-mediated GN diagnosed?
Demonstration of Ig and C3 in glomeruli by immunofluorescence or immunohistochemistry
What are two possible sequelae to immune-mediated GN?
- Renal disease
- Protein-losing nephropathy
What is the term for when glomeruli become hyalinized because of an increase in both fibrous connective tissue and mesangial matrix and a loss of glomerular capillaries, causing them to become hypocellular and nonfunctional?
What are some predisposing factors to glomerulosclerosis?
- Unrestricted protein diet
- Increased glomerular capillary pressure in functional glomeruli
- Platelet-derived growth factors
What is the intravascular increase in urea, creatinine and nitrogenous waste?
Azotemia can lead to renal failure in what ways?
- Intravascular accumulation of other metabolic wastes
- Reduced blood pH
- Alterations in plasma ion concentrations