Path MT II
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What clinical signs are seen in animals affected by congenital dyshormonogenetic goiter?
- Subnormal growth rates
- Sparse hair coat
- Sluggish behavior
What type of neoplasm of the thyroid gland appears as white to tan, small, well demarcated solid nodules or cysts, usually single and encapsulated (movable under skin)?
Follicular cell adenoma
In which animal is follicular cell adenoma of the thyroid gland common?
What neoplasm of the thyroid gland is typically multinodular, grows rapidly and invades tissues, metastasize early to the lungs and is in a "fixed" position?
Follicular cell carcinoma
In what breeds of dogs is follicular cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland common?
- Golden Retrievers
Hyperthyroidism in aged cats is mostly associated with what?
- Multinodular hyperplasia
Hyperthyroidism in dogs is usually associated with what?
What clinical signs are associated with hyperthyroidism?
- Increased serum T4 and T3
- Increased serum ALT, AST, and AP
- Restlessness, weight loss
- Weakness and fatigue
- Cervical swelling, coughing, dyspnea
- 2nd hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
What is the possible etiology behind hypothyroidism?
- Idiopathic follicular collapse/atrophy
- Lymphocytic thyroiditis
- Bilateral nonfunctional follicular cell neoplasms
- Chronic pituitary lesions
What clinical signs are associated with hypothyroidism?
- Lethargy, weight gain, muscular weakness and slow reflexes
- Skin lesions
- Reproductive abnormalities
- Joint pain and effusion
- Low plasma bound iodine
In what animals is hypothyroidism most commonly seen?
What types of skin lesions are usually seen in hypothyroidism?
- Bilateral symmetric alopecia
- Hair cycle (Anagen, Catagen, and Telogen)
- Follicular keratosis
Cows fed a high calcium diet before parturition are likely to develop what condition?
Parturient paresis (milk fever)
What can primary hyperparathyroidism be due to?
- Parathyroid hyperplasia
- Parathyroid adenoma
- Parathyroid carcinoma
What clinical signs are associated with primary hyperparathyroidism?
- Weakening of bones
How do you diagnose primary hyperparathyroidism?
- Total blood calcium and phosphorus
- Circulating concentrations of parathyroid hormone
In what species do you see secondary hyperparathyroidism because of nutritional imballances?
- Nonhuman primates
What diet will cause secondary hyperparathyroidism in horses?
High grain/poor roughage or all bran diets
What type of diet will cause secondary hyperparathyroidism in dogs and cats?
Secondary hyperparathyroidism because of a nutritional imbalance is usually due to what?
- Excess phosphorus
- Normal to low calcium
- Low vitamin D3
What animals is secondary hyperparathyroidism due to renal disease common in?
What are the results of secondary hyperparathyroidism (nutritional and renal)?
- Hypertrophy and hyperplasia of cheif cells
- Excess PTH (Big head and rubber jaw)
What are some mechanisms behind pseudohyperparathyroidism?
- Humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM)
- Hypercalcemia induced by metastases of solid neoplasms to bone
- Hematological malignancies
What humoral factors are seen in humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM)?
- Vitamin D3
What hormone is secreted by Alpha cells in the pancreas?
What processes are started by glucagon?
Does glucagon cause an increase or decrease in the ECF?
Increase in ECF
What hormone is excreted by Beta cells in the pancreas?
What process is initiated by insulin?
Increased membrane transport of glucose
Does insulin increase or decrease the ECF?
Decrease in ECF
What hormone is produced in the Delta cells of the pancreas?
What is the action of somatostatin?
Inhibits release of insulin, glucagon and gastrointestingal peptides
What hormone is produced by F or PP cells in the pancreas?
What is the action of pancreatic polypeptide?
Decrease food intake
What type of diabetes is characterized by destruction of beta cells with progressive and eventual loss of insulin secretion?
Type I Diabetes Mellitus
What type of diabetes is considered insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus?
Type I Diabetes Mellitus
What type of diabetes is characterized by insulin resistance (genetic) and/or dysfunction of beta cells (gradual loss of insulin secretion)?
Type II Diabetes Mellitus
Almost all cases of diabetes mellitus in dogs is of what type?
Type I (more common in females)
What is the pathogenesis behind type I diabetes mellitus in dogs?
- Destruction of islets
- Hypoplasia of pancreatic islets
- Immune destruction of beta cells
What is the pathogenesis of type II diabetes mellitus in cats?
- Amyloidosis of islets
- Severe vacuolation of islet beta cells
What type of diabetes mellitus is relatively common in cats?
Type II diabetes mellitus
What clinical signs are associated with diabetes mellitus?
- Hyperglycemia and glycosuria
- Increased food consumption
- Loss of weight
- Bilateral cataracts
- Glycogen nephrosis
What type of neoplasm appears as a single mass or as multiple nodules near the base of the heart and usually causes heart failure due to space-occupying nature in the pericardium?
Aortic body adenomas/carcinomas
What type of neoplasm arises near the bifurcation of the common carotid artery, is usually unilateral and slow growing, and may interfere with swallowing and blood flow?
Carotid body adenomas/carcinomas
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