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What syndrome is associated with multisystemic lesions and clinical signs of renal failure due to azotemia?
What non-renal lesions of uremia are associated with increased vascular permeability?
- Pulmonary edema
- Fibrinous pericarditis
What non-renal lesions of uremia are associated with ammonia secretion?
- Ulcerative and hemorrhagic gastritis
- Ulcerative and necrotic stomatitis
What non-renal lesions of uremia are associated with endothelial and subendothelial damage?
Atrial and aortic thrombosis
What non-renal lesions of uremia are associated with increased erythrocyte fragility and lack of erythropoietin production in the kidney?
What non-renal lesions of uremia are associated with altered Ca-P metabolism?
- Soft-tissue mineralization (stomach, lungs, pleura, kidneys)
- Fibrous osteodystrophy
- Parathyroid hyperplasia
What prerenal factors can cause acute renal failure?
- Reduced renal blood flow
- Local obstruction of vascular supply
What intrarenal factors can cause acute renal failure?
- Ascending disease (pyelonephritis
- Inraluminal toxic metabolites
What postrenal factors can cause acute renal failure?
Obstruction of the urinary tract
What happens when functional capacity of the kidney is abruptly impaired (loss or 75%)?
Acute renal failure
What are the four main pathologic alterations in acute renal failure?
- Decreased ultrafiltration
- intratubular obstruction
- Fluid back leak
- Inrarenal vasoconstriction
What two things can cause acute tubular necrosis?
- Neophrotoxic damage to the renal tubular epithelial cells
How much cardiac output goes to the kidney?
What are some possible etiologies behind granulomatous nephritis?
- Feline coronavirus
- Mycobacterium sp.
- Aspergillus sp., Phycomycetes sp., Histoplasma capsulatum
- Prototheca sp.
- Ehrlichia canis
- Encephalitozoon cuniculi
- Toxocara canis
- Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa)
How do lesions of granulomatous nephritis appear?
Small, gray-white, single to multifocal granulomatous foci
What are two common causes of granulomatous nephritis in cats?
- FIP (dry form)
- Inherited hyperlipidemia
What are two common causes of granulomatous nephritis in dogs?
- Puppies with Encephalitozoon cuniculi
- Renal xanthogranulomatous
What is inflammation of the renal pelvis and renal parenchyma?
How does pyelonephritis usually originate?
Is usually an extension of a bacterial infection affecting the lower urinary tract
Where in the kidney does an infection causing pyelonephritis usually establish?
Pelvis and inner medulla
Abnormal metabolism of uric acid can cause calculus formation in what breed of dog?
Abnormally high levels of what substances in the diet can cause calculus formation?
- Silicate in pastures
- Phosphate in milo
- Estrogens in subterranean clover
- Magnesium in commercial dry cat food
- Oxalate in plants
Low levels of what vitamin may cause calculus formation?
What factors are important in calculus formation?
- Urinary pH
- Reduced water intake
- Bacterial infection
- Structural abnormalities of the lower urinary tract
- Foreign bodies
What are some consequences of urolithiasis?
- Predisposition to pyelitis, pyelonephritis
- Urinary obstruction
- Traumatic injury
- Small calculi
What are some ways that the urinary bladder can resist infection?
- Normal flow
- pH of urine
- Urine osmolality
- Frequent sloughing of urothelial epithelium
What are some common bacteria infections that cause cystitis?
- All species - E. coli
- Cattle - Corynebacterium renale
- Pigs - Eubacterium suis
- Horses - Klebsiella sp.
- Several animals - Proteus sp., Streptococcus sp. and Staphylococcus sp.
What syndrome of mature cattle characterized by persistent hematuria and anemia and is associated with hemorrhages and neoplasms in the lower urinary tract (bladder)?
Enzootic hematuria is often linked to ingestion of what plant?
In what species are renal adenomas most common?
What tumor arises from the epithelium of the proximal convoluted tubule?
What is the most common primary renal tumor of dogs, cattle, and sheep?
What tumor forms spherical or ovoid masses, usually located in one pole of the kidney?
What is the most common primary renal tumor in cats that is presented as white nodules that confluent eventually?
What is the most common primary renal tumor of pigs and chickens (50% metastasize to the lungs)?
Nephroblastoma (Wilm's tumor)
In what animals is neoplasia of the urinary bladder usually reported in?
What tumor of the urinary bladder originates from areas of mucous metaplasia of the urothelium and they form glandular structures containing mucin?
Wha tumor of the urinary bladder may be papillary, polypoid, or sessile, and is common in the neck or trigone?
Transitional cell carcinoma
What tumor occurs in the urinary bladder and less commonly in the urethra of young dogs <18 months and usually has grape-like (botyroid) appearance?