quiz 2

Card Set Information

quiz 2
2012-04-01 14:56:38
anatomy physiology

chapters 5 and 6
Show Answers:

  1. layer of tissues that line an area
  2. membrane composed of areolar tissue with elastic fibers and adipose tissue used to line cavities of moveable joints
    synovial membrane
  3. bursa(ae) elbow and knee, articular synovial membranes, tendon sheaths
    types of synovial membrane
  4. membrane composed of epithelium and connective tissue used to line a surface
    epithelium membrane
  5. lines body cavities that open to exterior
    mucous membrane
  6. epithelial sheet is directly under a layer of loose connective tissue
    laminae propria
  7. moist membrane found in closed ventral body cavity results in thin clear serous fluid that lubricates surfaces of parietal and visceral layers
    serous membrane (serosa)
  8. part of the double layered membrane that lines the walls of the ventral body cavity
    parietal serosa
  9. the part of the double layered membrane that lines the outer surfaces of organs within the ventral body cavity
    visceral portion
  10. houses the heart
  11. houses the lungs
  12. lines abdominal cavity
  13. cutaneous epithelium membrane
  14. what we see with our eyes composed of stratified squamous epithelium
  15. skin is made up of
    • keratinocytes
    • melanocytes
    • nonpigmented granular dendocytes
  16. A specialized epidermal cell that synthesizes keratin.
  17. makes melanin
  18. made up of langerhan's cells, and merkel cells
    nonpigmented granular dendocytes
  19. makes bone marrow
    langer han's cells
  20. found in cells between layers (few) associated with sensory neuron to form merkel discs used in touch
    merkel cells
  21. arranged in layers
  22. aka stratum germinativum deepest epidermal layer, cells mostly sem cells which divide to produce keratinocytes, melanocytes and merkel cells
    stratum basale (basal layer)
  23. thickest layer several cell layers thick contain intermediate filaments mostly tesion resisting bundles of pre-keratin filaments cells polyhedral shaped keratinocytes with spiny projections (8-10 rows) langerhan cells and processes of melanocytes
    stratum spinosum (spiny layer)
  24. waterproof 3-5 cell layers produce keratohyalin
    stratum granulosum (granular layer)
  25. only see in thick skin soles of feet, thin translucent band just above the stratum granulosum 2-3 rows of clear fat dead kerationocyte
    stratum lucidum (clear layer)
  26. 20-30 rows dead cells, protects skin against abrasion and penetrations glycolipids between its cells barely waterproof thin layer
    stratum corneum (homey layer)
  27. 2nd major skin region, strong flexible connective tissue binds entire body together cells: fibroblasts, macrophages, white blood cells, matrix with collagen, elastic and reticular fibers
  28. 3 layers of the dermis
    • papillar layer
    • reticular layer
    • hypodermis (superficial fascia)
  29. areolar tissue with many blood vessels and elastic fibers, dermal papillae indentations into epithelium, free nerve endings,
    papillar layers
  30. meissners corpuscles
    touch receptors
  31. thicker 2nd layer, dense irregular connective tissues with collagen, elastic and reticular fibers. fibers allow for extensibility and elasticity
    reticular layer
  32. krause and ruffini corpuscles
    thermo receptors
  33. collagen fibers align in a direction
    lines of cleavage
  34. the subcutaneous layer attaches to its underlying tissues
    hypodermis (superficial fascia)
  35. pacinian corpuscles
    pressure receptors
  36. covers entire body without it we would not be able to block bacteria or black the loss of h2o in our body shock absorber, reduces heat loss, synthesizes vitamin d
  37. vitamin d which goes to kidney and liver to form .....
  38. melanin in epidermis
    brown yellow color
  39. carotene in dermis
    orange color
  40. blood in capillaries of dermis
    red color
  41. albinism
    white color
  42. cyanosis
    blue (poor oxygenated blood)
  43. erythema
    red (blushing fever)
  44. jaundice
    yellow (alcoholism) found in babies
  45. bilirubin
    composed in liver cells
  46. are distributed over our entire skin except palms soles lips nipples and some external genitalia, snses bugs on skin hair on scalp eyelashes, nose hairs
  47. flexible strands produced by hair follicles and consist of dead keratinized cells
    hair aka pili
  48. two regions of hair
    • shaft
    • root
  49. keratinization is complete in the ....
  50. 3 layers of keratinized cells
    • medulla
    • cortex
    • cuticles
  51. compacted cells (in the middle)
  52. surrounds medulla
  53. outside surface
  54. ___ is made by melanocytes
    hair pigment
  55. fold down from the epidermal surface to the dermis
    hair follicle
  56. deep end of follicle forms a ...
    hair bulb
  57. around each nerve is a sensory nerve ending called....
    hair follicle receptors or root hair plexus
  58. smooth muscle pulls hair up for goosbumps or cold
    arrector pili
  59. body hair of children and adult females fine hair
    vellus hair
  60. coarser longer hair of eyebrows and scalp often darker
    terminal hair
  61. baldness hairs are not replaced as fast as they shed
  62. genetically determined sex influenced condition
    male patterned baldness
  63. secrete serum made of fat cholesterol protein and salts to keep skin supple and inhibit bacteria
    sebaceous glands
  64. sweat composed of salt water notrogonous waste
    sudoiferous gland
  65. sweat glands in groin axilia and areolar
    apocine (hair follicles)
  66. produce watery perspiration to cool body on palms soles forehead
    merocrine glands
  67. found in lining of external earcanal
    ceruminous gland
  68. forms sticky substance
    cerumen (earwax)
  69. keratinized epidermal cells celar protective covering of dorsal surface on distal part of a finger or toe
  70. white area on nail
    nail matrix
  71. surround the nail
    nail fold
  72. lies above matrix
  73. underneath nail where dirt and debris lie
  74. process of wearing down or rubbing away by measures of friction scraped area on the skin or mucosu membrane
  75. affect different layers of the skin
    deep wound
  76. basal epidermal cells break contact with basement membrane, cells enlarge and migrate until they meet contact inhibition, migration stops when in full contact, basal stem cells now divide to form new cells 24-48 hours of healing
    healing of abrasions
  77. stops growth of cells
    contact inhibiton
  78. how many phases are in deep wound
    • 5
    • inflammatory response, migatory phase, proliferative phase, maturation phase, scar tissue
  79. formation of a clot of fibrin threads, vasodilatation to bring white blood cells to fight infections
    inflammatory response
  80. clot becomes a scab, epithelial cells migrate to bridge the wound, fibroblasts travel along fibrin and form scar tissue of collagen and glycoproteins, damaged blood vessels repaired
    migratory phase
  81. growth of epithelial cells, formation of collagen fibers
    proliferative phase
  82. scabs slough off, collagen is organized, fibroblast decrease in number
    maturation phase
  83. collagen is more dense fewer blood vessels and may not have sweat glands hair or sensory neurons
    scar tissue
  84. tissue damage inflicted by intense heat electric radiation and certain chemicals
  85. types of burns
    • 1st degree
    • 2nd degree
    • 3rd degree
  86. only epidermis is damaged localized redness, swelling, pain
    heals in 2-3 days
    ex. sunburn
    1st degree
  87. injure epidermis and upper region of dermis, mimic 1st degree burn blisters appear, heals in 3-4 weeks,
    ex. hand on hot stove
    2nd degree burn
  88. full thickness burn cant feel it nerves are dead, entire thickness of skin, appears grey white, cherry red, or blackened
    ex. car fire, house fire
    3rd degree burn
  89. quick though not accurate, analyasis of burns
    rules of nines
  90. front and back 9% front by itself 4.5% back by itself 4.5%
  91. front and back 9%, both 18%
  92. front and back 36% front by itself 18% back by itself 18%
  93. 1%
  94. front and back 18% front by itself 9% back by itself 9% both 36%
  95. more accurate , shows in infants that their heads are larger
    lund-brower method
  96. dried serum and debris
  97. filled semisolid sac
  98. flat discolored (like birthmark)
  99. solid elevated more than 1 cm
  100. small solid elevation
  101. growth (inside body like in throat)
  102. pus filled
  103. clear fluid blister
  104. smooth slightly elevated edema (like welts)
  105. large blisters
  106. basic life process, dna rna protein, proteins form enzymes, enzyme control, development, metabolism, reproduction
  107. proteins are changed by radiation results in mutations
    ex. radiation sun x-rays
  108. when dna gene is damaged or changed in such a way as to alter the genetic messsage carried by that gene
  109. cells die
  110. did not produce correctly
    anaplastic cells
  111. keeps forming cells doesnt stop may form tumors
    lack of contact inhibition
  112. cells multiply
    cell proliferation
  113. small and large tumors
    benign tumors
  114. carcinoma insitu
  115. grow and spreads
  116. cancer tumor
    malignant tumor
  117. malignant tumor skin and other areas
    squamous cell carcinoma
  118. common slow growing usually facial rarely metastasizes, occurs in old people
    basal cell carcinoma
  119. malignant vascular effects lower extremities found in aids patients
    kaposi sarcoma
  120. melanocytes, sunlight caused, shoes as mole/nevus,abcd's of malignant melanoma
    malignant melanoma
  121. folds in half not the same
  122. irregular
  123. 2 or more
  124. 6mm size of pencil eraser
  125. raised off the skin
  126. all of the bones in the body, tissues such as ligaments, tendons, and cartilage
    skeletal system
  127. consists of cells surrounded by matrix containing mineral salts and collagenous fibers
  128. A mesenchymal cell that differentiates into an osteoblast
    osteoprogenitor cells
  129. repair our bone
  130. break bones
  131. maintain the bone matrix
  132. contains mineral salts
  133. helps us twist our bones and stretch, includes proteoglycans and clycoproteins and collagen
  134. functional unit osteon or haversian canal
    compact bone
  135. an elongated cylinder composed of hoolow tubes of matrix, alternating pattern of collagen allows for twisting
  136. contain blood vessels
    haversian canal
  137. perforating canals, connect blood and nerve supply of the peristeum to those in the central canals and the medullary cavity
    volkmanns canals
  138. hairlike canals connecting the lacunae at the junctions of the lamellae, throughout the whole bone
  139. incomplete lamellae which fills the gaps between osteons
    interstitial lamellae
  140. extend around the entire circumference of the diapysis, resists twisting of the long bone
    circumferential lamellae
  141. white double layered membrane of external surface of entire bone
  142. trabeculae which act as struts, contain irregular lamellae lookspoorly organized, no osteons, osteocytes interconnected by canaliculi, helps bone resist as much as possible
    spongy bone
  143. longer than they are wide, has a shaft plus 2 ends
    ex. femur tibia fibia
    long bones
  144. roughly cube shaped, is on the outside of long bone
    ex. wrist and ankle bone
    short bones
  145. knee cap not connected to any other bone, held on by ligaments
    sesamoid bone
  146. thin flattened ususally curved
    ex. skull scapula ribs sternum
    flat bone
  147. middle layer of spongy bone is called
  148. compacted shapes that do not fit into above categories
    ex. vertebrae hip bones some skull bones
    irregular bone
  149. shaft, forms long axis of the bone, constructed of compact bone that surrounds medullary cavity
  150. bone ends exterior is compact bone, interior is spongy bone
  151. includes epiphyseal line which comes from epiphyseal plate which grows during childhood epiphyseal line is between diaphysis and epiphysis made of cartilage
  152. joint surface of each epiphysis is covered with articular cartilage, cushions opposing bone ends during joint movement and absorbs stress
    articular cartilage
  153. periosteum has ____ layers
    • 3
    • fibrous layer, osteogenic layer, and sharpeys fibers
  154. outermost layer, dense irregular connective tissue hardest layer
    fibrous layer
  155. inner most layer, made of osteoblasts and osteoclasts
    osteogenic layer
  156. collagen fibers which extend fro the fibrous layer to bone matrix to secure the periosteum
    sharpeys fibers
  157. middle cavity, contains fat, yellow marrow cavity
    medullary cavity
  158. found within trebecular cavities of spongy bone of long bones and in diploe of flat bones, often found in newborn infants, little _____ i adults can usually only be found in the head of femur and humerus
    red bone marrow
  159. delicate connective tissue used to cover the internal bone surfaces such as the trabeculae and canals, contains both osteoblasts and osteoclasts
  160. support of soft tissue, sie of attachment for muscles, protect internal organs allow for movement since bones provide leverage for muscle contraction, storage of minerals especially calcium and phosphorus storage of lipisd in yellow bone marrow for energy
    functions of the skeletal system
  161. process of bone formation
  162. formation of cranial cones of the skull and the clavicles
    intramembranous ossification
  163. except for the clavicles all bones of the skeleton below the base of the skull
    endochondral ossification
  164. epiphyseal plate allows for the continued growth of the bone dut to interstital growth ossification ends usually at age 25 for males 18 for women
    physiology of bone growth
  165. when bone deposits and bone resorption removal occur both at the surface of the endosteum also maintains proper bone proportions
  166. to form osteoblast
  167. stops calcium loss
  168. for bone formation
  169. maintains our matrix
    vitamin c
  170. controls osteoblast and osteoclast
    vitamin a
  171. aids osteoblast activity
    vitamin b12
  172. removes calcium from bone and moves
  173. used to form a hyroxyapalite
    calcium and phosphorus
  174. any break in a bone
  175. fracture of the ankle joint with the lower parts of the fibula and tibia being broke
    potts fraction
  176. fracture of the radius about 1 inch above the wrist
    colles fracture
  177. bone fragments into 3 or more pieces can be from brittle bones
    comminutes fracture
  178. break occurs due to excessive twisting forces can be seen from sports
    spiral fracture
  179. bone portion pushed inward usually found in skull
  180. bone is crushed usually found in porous bone in falls
    compression fracture
  181. epiphysis seperates from diaphysis along epiphyseal plate
    epiphyseal fracture
  182. bone breaks incompletely one side of the shaft breaks
    greenstick fracture
  183. broken blood vessels form clots called ___
    fracture hematoma
  184. phagocytes and osteoclasts remove
    tramatized tissue
  185. blood capillaries organize the hematoms into granulation tissue
  186. fibroblasts form peristeum and osteoprogenator cells which produce_______
    collagen fibers
  187. chondroblasts form and produce fibrocartilage to form
    soft callus aka fibrocarilagenous callus
  188. fibrocartilage is converted to spongy bone called____
    hard callus
  189. _______ of spongy bone to compact bone
  190. axial skeleton consists of______
    • skull,
    • hyoid
    • vertebral column
    • thorax
  191. cranial and facial regions
  192. immovable joints which include coronal lamboidal sagittal and squamosal
  193. soft spots of skull on infants
  194. articulates with no other bone and acts as an attachment point for muscles and ligaments
  195. divided into 26 bones, 5 regions,
    vertebral column
  196. sternum and ribs
  197. 26 bones
    vertebral column
  198. 7 in neck
  199. 12 parts
  200. 5 parts
  201. 1 part thicker
  202. last part tail bone
  203. holds pectoral girdle, arm, pelvis girdle and legs
    appendicular skeleton
  204. attaches arms to axial skeleton composed of clavicle and scapula
    pectoral girdle
  205. humerus, ulna, radius, carpals, metacarpals, phalanges
  206. is formed from the sacrum coccyx and coxal bones,
    pelvic girdle
  207. formed from fusion of ilum pubis ischium
    coxal bones
  208. coxal bones have sockets called
  209. femur patella tibia fibula tarsals metatarsals, phalanges
  210. cut in half
  211. back of head
  212. on top
  213. on the side