Biology 104 test 1

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  1. biosphere, ecosystem, community and population
    everything on earth, all organisms living in particular area, all organisms in ecosystem,specific organism
  2. tissues
    made of groups of similar cells
  3. molecules
    clusters of atoms
  4. organelles
    membrane-bound structures with specific functions
  5. cells
    living entities distinguished from thier environment by a membrane
  6. gene
    descrete unit of dna, can instruct formation, specific nucleotide
  7. hypothesis based research
    uses discovery science to explain science
  8. discovery science
    uses varifiable observations and measurements to describe science
  9. theory
    is supported by a large usually growing amount of research
  10. hypothesis
    a proposed explanation-- a guess
  11. element
    a substance that cannot be broken down to other substances
  12. 4 elements that compose 96.3 percent of our bodies
    oxygen, carbon, hydrogen amd nitrogen
  13. CHNOPS
    carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus and sulfur
  14. goiter
    absence of iodine-causes growth of thyroid in throat
  15. result of low iron
    body cannot transport oxygen
  16. compound
    substance consisting of 2 or more elements in a fixed ratio
  17. mass number
    number of protons plus number of neutrons
  18. nucleus
    part of cell that contains neutrons and protons,controls activities, contain protein and dna called chromotin responsible for inheritance and contains nuclear envelope
  19. atomic number
    amount of protons is atomic number
  20. atom
    smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of the element
  21. isotopes
    variations in the atom which contain equal protons and electrons but differentnumber of nuetrons
  22. tracers
    radioactive material used to in medical diagnoses
  23. PET
    positron emission tomography detects location of injected radioactive meterial- heart, brain and cancers
  24. electron shells
    energy levels where electrons occur
  25. max number of electron in each electron shell
    2 in first shell, 8 in second and third shell
  26. what determines the chemical property of an atom
    number of electrons in outer most electron shell
  27. chemical bonds
    attraction between where the atom donates or recieves an electron
  28. ion
    atom or molecule with an electrical charge resulting from gain or loss of an atom- if an electron is lost a possitive charge results
  29. ionic bond
    when attraction holds ions together, salt
  30. a covalent bond
    when atoms share an electron in it's outter electron shell, water
  31. molecule
    formed when covalent bonds hold atoms together
  32. electronegativity
    the attraction(pull) for shared electrons
  33. nonpolar covalent bonds
    molecules with only 1 element the pull is equal because each atom has the same electronegativity
  34. polar covalent bond
    unequal(1 positive 1 negative) electron sharing between 2 or more elements like in water
  35. explain unequal distrubution of charge
    like water, oxygen has a stronger pull on the hydrogen because it has a slightly negative charge and the hydrogen is slightly positive. opposites attract
  36. hydrogen bond
    hydrogen will share attractions with other electronegative atoms,the positive charged region is always a hydrogen atom-causes molecules to stick together
  37. cohension
    when molecules stick together by a hydrogen bond. like i nwater
  38. surface tension
    how difficult it is to break the surface-caused by hydrogen bonds
  39. adhesion
    when something sticks to outside source
  40. solution
    liquid consisting of auniform mixture of 2 or more substances
  41. solvent
    the disolving agent of a solution-the liquid portion
  42. solute
    the substance that is dissolved-solid
  43. what 2 things can create h+ ions
    water and acids
  44. bases
    chemicals that accept hydrogen ions and remove them from a solution, serve as a solvent
  45. ph
    potential of hydrogen-ranges from o to 14 the higher the less acidic
  46. acid percipitation
    rain, snow or fog with ph lower than 5.6-cause when sulfur and nitrous react with water in the air
  47. a protien ending in ase indicates what
    that an enzyme is present
  48. lactase
    the enzyme that can break down lactose
  49. properties of carbon
    called organic compounds if carbon based, shares electrons with up to four other atoms,
  50. hydrocarbons
    compound that only share carbon and hydrogen. like methane
  51. carbon skeleton
    a chain of carbons
  52. hydrophilic
    soluble in water
  53. macromolecules made by
    polymers meaning they have the same building blocks, polymers are made by monomers which act like building blocks
  54. properties of molomers
    linked together by dehydration reaction and breaks down by hydrolosis(adding water),
  55. enzymes
    regulate chemical reactions
  56. monosaccarides
    monomers that make sugar, like glucose and fructose, main fuel for cellular work
  57. polysaccarides
    polymers of monosaccarides, function in the cell as storage molecules, hydrophillic, assist in structure
  58. disaccarides
    when two monosaccaride monomers bond to eachother during a dahydration process
  59. four polysaccarides(monomers of monosaccharides
    • starch-storage made of glucose found in plants
    • glycogen- stored in liver and muscle
    • cellulose- polymer of glucose forms plant cell walls not edible
    • chitin- hard to build exoskeleton on insects
  60. lipids
    • hydrophobic, fats(triglycerides), phospholipids are polymers
    • the monomers are- fatty acids, glycerol
  61. unsaturated fats
    less thank the maximun number of hydrogen atoms,
  62. saturated fat
    maximun number of hydrogen atoms,
  63. steroids
    lipids composed of fused ring structures, like cholesterol
  64. protein
    • polymer built from aminos, called polypeptides because it has multiple peptides, also include enzymes
    • types-- structural(hair, tendons ect.) , contractile(in muscle), defensive(antibodies), signal(hormones), receptor(outside signals), transport(carry oxygen)
  65. amino acids
    1 carboxyl group and 1 amino group, form protein by linking together through dehydration
  66. denaturation
    when a protein shape is altered, can be cause by salt or hi or low ph
  67. primary structure of protein
    it's unique amino acid sequence
  68. secondary structure of proein
    results from coiling or folding of the polypeptide, results from a hydrogen bond,
  69. tertiary structure of a protein
    overall 3 dimensional shape, strengthened by disulfide bridges
  70. quaternary structure of a protein
    2 or more polypeptide chains associated, like collogen(40 % of protein in body)
  71. linus pauling
    discovered cause of cyclcell and the alpha helix of dna
  72. nucleic acids
    dna and rna are polymers, monomers are (nucleotides(ribos, deoxyribos,) phosphate group and nitrogenous group.)
  73. nitrogenous base
    • dna( thymine(A) cytosine(T) guanine(G) agt
    • rna the same except uracil(U) instead of (T) agu
  74. dna double helix
    formed from 2 polynucleotide straps wrapping around eachother,
  75. gene
    a particular nucleotide that can intruct the information of a polypeptide,
  76. carbohydrate
    gkucose , monosaccuarides are monomers, polysaccarides, chitin, cellulose are polymers
  77. biological organization
    life emerges through organization each new level novel properties emerge called emergent properties
  78. living things 4 requirements
    acquire food and process it, respond to stimuli, reproduce and develope and adapt to change
  79. radioactive isototopes
    give off energy and can be used as tracers.
  80. water unique charactoristics
    resistant to temperature change, used as a solution, has adhesion and cohesion so plants can pull from roots.also has surface tension
  81. ice unique
    form air pockets between bonds and expands. also less dense can float
  82. organic molecuels
    carbon based,properties depend on size, shape, and funtional group attatched to it
  83. functional groups
    effects biological molecules function in a charactoristic way. determines how molecule will react like in sex hormones
  84. macromolecules
    large size, polymers
  85. eukaryotic cells differ because
    they have contained nucleous and organells
  86. 3 domains
    eukaryotic, archea, bacteria
  87. phospholipids
    head loves water tail hates it. major part of cell membrane
  88. peptide bond
    links amino acids together(amino part to carboxyl part) to form proteins
  89. dna
    • deoxyribo, atcg(adenane,thymine,cytosyne,guanine)
    • rna same but uracil instead of guarine, and single helix
  90. at gc
    • adenane/thymine cytosine/guanine
    • weaker 2 3 hydr bonds
  91. cell theory
    all living things came from cells and all cells came from other cells
  92. cell size
    bacteria smallest, plant animal 10 times larger
  93. microscopes
    light 1000 times magnify, electron 100,000 uses electron beam
  94. cytoplasm
    everyhting in the cell outside the nucleus but inside cell membrane
  95. endosymbiotic theory
    mitochondria and chlorophyl were small prokaryotic that began living in larger cells
  96. ribosomes
    contained in ER. some free some bonded, involved in protein synthesis
  97. endoplasmic reticulum
    rough protein synthesis, smooth makes lipids
  98. golgi apparatus
    acts like ups
  99. lysomes
    contain digestive enzymes, remove and recycle damaged parts
  100. vacules
    hold water, provide color for flowers, keep plant upright
  101. chloroplast structure
    photosynthetic organells of plant
  102. thylakoid, grana, stroma
    parts of chloroplast, thylakoids stack up to form grana and stroma is where the light reactions occur
  103. mitochondria
    power plants, contain the matrix and intermembrane
  104. cytoskeletons
    structure of protein fibers, provide support and mobility
  105. cilia and flagella
    flagella has tail(sperm) cilia has hairs(lungs expelle phlem)
  106. 3 types of cell junctions
    • tight-prevent leaks
    • anchoring- fasten cells into sheet
    • gap- channels allow flow of nutrients
  107. differences between plant and animal cells
    animal cells have lysosomes and centriols, and do not have cell wall chloroplast or central vacule
  108. plasmodesmata
    plant cell junctions provide communication between cells
  109. dynein arms
    motor proteins that bend to allow movement by cilia and flagella
  110. explain endosymbiotic theory and evidence
    states that mitochondria and chlorophyl(powerplants of animal and plant cells) were once small prokaryotic cells that began living in larger cells,,,,,,evidence.The structure of both DNA and ribosomes is very similar to that found in prokaryotic cells, and mitochondria and chloroplasts replicate much like prokaryotes
  111. Image Upload 1
    Image Upload 2starts as dna in nucleus formed in to rna and tranfered to rough endo and smooth endo where it is tranformed into proteins then moved to golgi to be shipped of where needed
  112. what are anabolic steroids and what is the danger
    synthetic variants of testosterone that build up muscle and bone can be used to treat tings lik anemia, but can also cause major damage to the liver that can ultimatley lead to cancer.
  113. explain enviromental or genetic cause of sperm motility decline in man
    age, immune disorders A group of chemicals called phthalates used in a variety of things (in plastics) people use every day may be the cause- cosmetics, deodorants, food packaging medical tubing, children’s toysalso genetic disorders like pcd
  114. The Fluid-Mosaic Model
    describes the plasma membrane of animal cells has two layers (a bilayer) of phospholipids (fats with phosphorous attached each phospholipid has hydrophilic heads facing out and hydrophobic head facing in
  115. type monomer polymer bonding
    nucleic acid
    • carb monomers-glucos and monosacc-polymer-cellulose polysacc chitin
    • protein monomers-aminos- polymers- enzymes proteins
    • lipid monomers-glycerol fatty acids polymer-triglycer phospholipids
    • nucleic acid monomers-ribos deoxyribo nitrogeneous base nucleotide polymer- rna dna
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Biology 104 test 1
Biology 104 Citrus College
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