Human Physiology Assessment Test Objectives
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State the basic units of the metric system for length, mass, time and volume
- length -> meter
- mass -> kilogram
- time -> seconds
- volume -> cubic meter (m^3) (also 1 m^3 = 1000 Liters)
Identify the fraction or multiple associated with each of the following prefixes: kilo, deci, centi, milli, micro and nano
- [kilo 10^3]
- [deci 10^-1]
- [centi 10^-2]
- [milli 10^-3]
- [micro 10^-6]
- [nano 10^-9]
Identify the common chemical symbols for Oxygen, Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Calcium, Potassium, Sodium, Chlorine, Iron and Phosphorus
- Oxygen = O
- Carbon = C
- Hydrogen = H
- Nitrogen = N
- Calcium = Ca
- Potassium = K
- Sodium = Na
- Chlorine = Cl
- Iron = Fe
- Phosphorus = P
Identify the chemical formulas for carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, water, hydrochloric acid, sodium chloride, glucose, and sodium bicarbonate (aka sodium hydrogen carbonate)
- Carbon Dioxide = CO2
- Carbon Monoxide = CO
- Water = H2O
- Hydrochloric Acid = HCl
- Sodium Chloride = NaCl
- Glucose = C6H12O6
- Sodium Bicarbonate = NaHCO3
Define the term atom
The atom is the smallest unit of matter.
Describe the basic structure of an atom (protons, neutrons and electrons)
Protons and nucleus located in the atom. Electrons surrounds the outside of the nucleus.
Identify the charge and the location in an atom of protons, neutrons and electrons.
- Proton - positive, mass of 1 dalton
- Neutron - no charge, in nucleus of atom
- Electron - negative, out of nucleus in orbitals
Define the term isotope.
Isotopes are elements containing the same number of protons but have different numbers of neutrons.
- Common carbon is C12 but a little bit exists as C13, C14, etc.
- C14 is radioactive and decay due to the extra neutrons.
Explain how radioactive isotopes are used.
Destroying cancer cells through radiation therapy. Will destroy the DNA and kill the cancer cells.
Define the term molecule.
an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by covalent chemical bonds
Define the term ion.
Explain the role of electrons in chemical bonding.
Valence electrons are used in chemical bonding via covalent or ionic.
Explain how ionic bonds hold atoms together.
Electrons are donated and accepted between atoms in an ionic bond. Elements with 1 and sometimes 2 valence electrons, will donate these electrons to another atom that needs these electrons to complete their outermost orbital. Leaves donator to acceptor.
Sodium Chloride (NaCl)
Salt. Sodium donates it's extra valence electron to Chlorine. Chlorine accepts causing sodium to become postively charged and Chlorine becomes negatively charged becoming Chloride.
Define covalent bond.
2 atoms share electrons
Explain how covalent bonds hold atoms together.
- Single bond - sharing 2 electrons (shown as a single line between the atoms or as 2 electrons (dots) between the atoms)
- Double bond - sharing 4 electrons
- Triple bond - sharing 6 electrons
Isotopes: PET Scans
Patients fed radioactive sugar solution. Body parts with high metabolic rate will show up red in the scanner such as the brain.
Define the term matter.
anything that occupies space and has mass. Anything that is tangible.
Define the term mass.
measure of the quantity of matter in a sample of any material
States of Matter: Solid
rigid and have definitive shape. usually packed closely together and regularly arranged. cannot be compressed easily.
States of Matter: Liquids
being able to flow and take shape of the container. heating liquids cause them to expand only slightly like solids. liquids compress only slightly under pressure. random arrangement.
States of Matter: Gases
less dense than liquids or solids and occupy all parts of any container. easily expand with increasing temperatures and compress under pressure. spaced very far apart from each other.
Define the term Sublimation
Solid to gas (dry ice that sublimates to CO2 gas, the white "smoke" that comes off dry ice.")
Define the term Deposition
Gas to solid. (Acids from industrial smokestacks in the air will deposit as acid rain)
Define the term Kinectic Energy
energy associated with motion or doing work
[child sliding down the slide]
Define the term Potential Energy
stored energy, as a result of its position, condition or composition
[child climbing up the steps of a slide]
Define the term hydrogen bond.
any molecules with at least 1 Hydrogen attached to an Oxygen or a Nitrogen.
Characteristics of Hydrogen Bond
Negative oxygen attracted to the positive Hydrogen. Not a true bond just an attraction. Very weak and short lived. Adds up to a strong one though.
Define the term Surface Tension (or Cohesion)
Water makes hydrogen forms with itself but not with the air. Acts as an invisible film.
Define the term Cohesion
Water sticks to itself via hydrogen bond
Define the term Adhesion
water adheres to other polar molecules
Organism benefits using adhesion and cohesion
Trees uses both to bring water from the roots to their leaves
Define the term High specific heat
Water takes a lot of energy to get water moving fast enough to get to steam.
Define the term Anion
- negatively charged ion
- Cl-, OH-, HCOO- are all anions
Define the term Cations
- positively charged ion
- NH4+, Ca2+, Na+ are all cations
Bronsted-Lowry definition of acids and bases
- Acid - donates a proton or H+
- Bases - accept a proton or H+
Identify Acids and Bases in the equation:
HCl + NH3 -> Cl- + NH4+
- HCl donates the H+ and so is the acid
- NH3 accepts the H+ and so is the base
Define the term Hydrogen Ion (aka Proton)
molecule like H2O or HCl dissociates, the electron stays behind so only the proton is donated
pH relates to the strength of an acid or the concentration of H+ in a solution (also written as [H+])
Determine the pH which is stronger and weaker:
[H+] of acid A = 10^-6 M
[H+] of acid B = 10^-2 M
Acid B is stronger than A.
Acid B is 10^4 times more acidic than acid A
Identify the range on the pH scale for acidic, neutral and alkalinic
- 1-7 is acidic (smaller number is acidic)
- 7-14 is alkalinic/basic (larger number more basic)
- 7 is neutral
Mixing acids and bases formula (just memorize)
(pH 4 + pH 10) / 2 = pH 7
Stomach (HCl) pH 1-2 too acidic. Neutralize by using baking soda (pH 8.5).
Using baking soda to neutralize acid (antacids)
Give information on the pH scale of Hydroxide (pOH)
Scale is 1-14
- 1 being most basic or alkalinic
- 14 being least basic or alkalinic
Define the term buffer
- combination of a weak acid and base that is in equilibrium
- maintains the solution within a narrow pH range
What is the safe range for the pH of blood?
7.35 to 7.45
Identify reactants and products from the following:
A + B -> AB
CD -> C + D
- A+B -> AB (combining)
- CD -> C + D (splitting)
reactant -> products
enzyme is a protein that is a catalyst
- increases amount of product in a reaction
- but not used up in the reaction and be reused many times
Anatomy of an enzyme
- as a protein, an enzyme is made of a chain of amino acids folded into a characteristic shape (called tertiary structure)
- pocket in the enzyme whre reaction occurs, the active site
the reactants together in the active site brought together by the enzyme
factors that work with the enzyme to catalyze reactions, often located in the active site
ex. Many are metal ions such as Mg or Ca. We get it via diet.
organic molecules that bind to the enzyme, often in the active site
- ex. includes:
- energy molecule ATP
- NADH, NADPH, and FADH2 that transfer hydrogen ions and electrons
- Many vitamins such as vitamin C, B1 (thiamine), B2 (riboflavin), niacin, folate and B12
Enzymes are optimal at what temperature in humans?
37C or 98.6F
Define the term Competitive Inhibitors
molecules that sit in the active site of an enzyme preventing the substrate from binding
enzymes are often arranged in pathways, where the product of one enzyme becomes the substrate for the next
Define the term Feedback Inhibition
controls the amount of product produced in cells
What are the 6 Major Functional Groups?
Hydroxyls of alcohols, carbonyls of aldehydes and ketones, carboxyls of carboxylic acids, aminos of amines, sulfhydryls of thiols, and phosphates of organic phosphates
-O-H attached to a hydrocarbon....
Hydroxyl are also called....
Alcohols (usually have alcohol or the "ol" at the end of the name)
ex. 2-carbon alcohol called ethyl alcohol or ethanol
Properties of alcohol
hydroxyl group is polar (hydrophylic). Smaller than 4 carbons are soluble in water. Larger than 4 carbons are insoluble in water such as cholesterol
Carbonyl Group structure
double bonded O attached to C
- at the end of the molecule called aldehyde (ex. acetaldehyde)
- in the middle of the molecule called ketone (ex. acetone)
Carboxyl Group structure
a carbonyl AND a hydroxyl are added
- -COOH or -CO2H
- -can form hydrogen bonds
- -molecules with a carboxyl group are called carboxylic acids
Carboxylic Acids Properties
H fromt he carboxyl is easily donated so carboxylic acids are acidic
CH3CO2H -> CH3CO2- + H+
Carboxylic acids are the among the most acidic of all the organic or carbon-containing acids
Amino Group structure
A molecule containing a Nitrogen often as -NH2
may be located at the end or in the middle of a molecule
- -can accept a proton (H+) and so are basic or alkaline
- CH3NH2 + H+ -> CH3NH3+
- -are often the decay products of proteins and smell terrible
Sulfhydryl Group structure
- -name is combination of sulfur and hydryl or "hydrogeon-containing".
- -have -S-H attached to the middle or end of a molecule
- -forms 2 covalent bonds (same as oxygen)
- -called thiols
Example of "Thiols"
- -most important thiol in living organisms is the amino acid cysteine (cys)
- -thiols of 2 cysteines can make a covalent bond, the disulfide bridge, locking proteins into their characteristic shape
cys - CH2 - S - S - CH2 - cys
Phosphate Group structure
- -phosphorus atom with 4 oxygens attached
- -2 oxygens often donate their H's, so phosphate can carry a 2- charge, an anoin, a negatively-charged ion
A percent solution is....
grams solute in 100 mL water
5% solution is 5g solute in 100 mL water
20% solution is 200g solute in 4000 mL water
Make 1000 mL of a 7% solution
A 7% solution has 7g solute in 100mL solution. Since we need to make a Liter, we will need 70g solute.
Molar Solution Formula
Gram needed = Formula Weight x Molarity x Liters
- FW: sum of each of the atomic masses for the molecule
- ex. NaCl = 23g/mole (Na) + 35.5g/mole (Cl) = 58.5g/mole
- Molarity: moles per liter
- ex. 2M solution has 2 moles per liter
- Liters: is the volume
- ex. 100mL = 0.1L
How many g of NaCL are needed to make 100mL of a 2M solution?
A: g needed = 58.5g/mole x 2 mole/L x 0.1L = 11.7g NaCl needed.
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