MSII Chapt 27.txt

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MSII Chapt 27.txt
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2012-03-03 12:29:59
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MSII Chapt 27
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MSII Chapt 27
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  1. Parasympathetic
    Stimulates flow of saliva, slows heartbeat, constricts bronchi, stimulates peristalsis and secretion, stimulates release of bile, contracts bladed
  2. Sympathetic
    Dilates pupil, inhibits flow of saliva, accelerates fast heartbeat, dilates bronchi, inhibits peristalsis and secretion, converts glycogen to glucose, secretes adrenaline and noradrenaline, inhibits bladder contraction
  3. Myelen
    enhances conduction along nerve fibers, gives axons white appearance
  4. Many neurologic disorders are due to an imbalance in neurotransmitters
  5. Increase in GABA
    ETOH seizures
  6. Decrease in dopamine
    Parkinson�s
  7. Decrease in acetylcholine
    Myasthenia gravis
  8. Frontal lobe
    Speech, Motor cortex
  9. Parietal
    Sensory
  10. Occipital
    Visual
  11. Temporal
    Auditory, olfactory
  12. CSF
    Acts as a shock absorber for the brain and spinal cord, reabsorbed in arachnoid villi
  13. What vertebra are in the spinal cord?
    C1 to L2
  14. How many pairs of spinal roots are there?
    31 pair
  15. Parts of CNS
    Brain and spinal cord
  16. Parts of PNS
    Cranial and spinal nerves
  17. Age related changes in nervous system
    # of nerve cells decreases, lipofuscin (aging pigment deposited in nerve cells) with amyloid, increased plaques, eye pupil smaller, reaction time increases, tremors, dizziness and balance problems
  18. Normal Babinski
    Plantar flexion, abnormal is dorsiflexion of big toe and fanning of other toes
  19. Craniotomy
    Surgical opening of the skull
  20. Craniectomy
    Excision of a segment of the skull
  21. Cranioplasty
    Any procedure done to repair a skull defect
  22. Minimum of 70 mm HG to sustain life
  23. 40 mm Hg-ischemia
  24. 30 mm Hg-incompatible with life
  25. Earliest change in ICP
    level of consciousness
  26. Late sign of increased ICP
    Pupillary changes
  27. Cushings triad
    Widening pulse pressure, hypertension, bradycardia
  28. Altered motor function with ICP
    motor area of the frontal lobe is compressed, deficits develop on the contralateral side of the mass
  29. Decorticate
    Flexion, cerebral tissue ABOVE the midbrain (cervical spinal tract or cerebral hemisphere)
  30. Decerebrate
    Extension, cerebral tissue midbrain or upper pons
  31. Migraine headache
    Intracranial vasoconstriction followed by vasodilation
  32. Most common headache
    tension (less severe)
  33. Most common headache in men
    Cluster
  34. Seizure
    Electrical impulses in the brain are conducted in a highly chaotic pattern that yields abnormal activity and behavior
  35. Seizure types
    partial (simple or complex) or generalized (entire brain from onset)
  36. Types of generalized seizures
    Tonic-clonic (grand mal), Absense (petit mal), myoclonic, atonic
  37. Tonic-clonic
    First, stiffening of muscles and loss of consciousness; then rhymic movement of extremities
  38. Absence
    brief periods of loss of consciousness associated with automations (eye blinking, lip smacking)
  39. Myoclonic
    brief jerking or stiffening
  40. Atonic
    sudden loss of muscle tone and person falls to floor
  41. Status epilepticus
    continuous seizures for 30 minutes or more
  42. Aura
    Dizziness, numbness, visual or hearing disturbance, odor or pain; may precede a seizure
  43. Med for seizures
    Dilantin
  44. How do you diagnose meningitis
    lumbar puncture to obtain CSF for lab
  45. What precautions for meningitis
    droplet
  46. What is GB
    specific cause is unknown; autoimmune response to viral infection
  47. What does GB affect?
    Motor root of PNS (usually spinal nerves, but can include cranial)
  48. How do patients report GB
    had recent viral infection or vaccination which triggers an autoimmune response which destroys myelin sheath and slows conduction of impulses
  49. Three phases of GB
    1. Initial-symmetric muscle weakness, first lower ext then upper, visual and hearing disturbance, respiratory muscle weakness, LOC is OK 2. Plateau-no further change, but no improvement 3. Re-myelinazation, muscle strength returns head to toe, 95% full recovery
  50. What drugs to give GB pt?
    Corticosteroids to suppress inflammatory process
  51. Decreased responsiveness accompanied by lack of spontaneous motor activity
    stupor
  52. Pt who can�t be aroused even by powerful stimuli
    Comatose
  53. Excessive drowsiness
    lethargy
  54. If pt is stupourous but can be aroused
    Semicomatose
  55. Unnatural drowsiness or sleepiness
    Somnolence
  56. A rapidly progressing disease that affects the motor component of the PNS
    GB
  57. Pupil constriction
    PS
  58. Increased get peristalsis
    PS
  59. Bronchial constriction
    PS
  60. Bronchial dilation
    SNS
  61. Pupil dilation
    SNS
  62. Decreased gut peristalsis
    SNS
  63. Increased rate and force of cardiac contractions
    SNS
  64. Shampoo is done before the test and meds are withheld 24-48 hours pre test
    EEG
  65. Pt lies still on stretcher while dye is injected and radiographs of the head are taken
    Cerebral angiography
  66. Cannula is inserted into femoral artery and advanced to carotid or vertebral arteries
    Cerebral angiography
  67. Needle electrodes are placed on several points over a nerve and muscles supplied by the nerve
    EMG
  68. Have pt void before to reduce discomfort
    Lumbar puncture
  69. Various parts of brain appear gray in what test
    CT
  70. Head trauma in which there is no visible injury to the skull or brain
    concussion
  71. Head trauma in which there is actual bruising and bleeding in the brain tissue
    contusion
  72. What drugs are used in treatment of ICP
    mannitol, corticosteroids, dieurtics (furosemide)
  73. Late sign of ICP
    dilated pupils
  74. What is an EEG used for
    detection of seizure activity
  75. The basis for GB diagnosis is
    characteristic onset and pattern of ascending motor involvement
  76. Highest priority for nursing intervention post cerebral angiography
    monitor puncture site for bleeding
  77. Highest priority for someone on Lamictal
    Notify physician of the evidence of a rash
  78. Emg is used to diagnose
    neuromuscular abnormalities such as ALS
  79. Cerebral dysfunction causes loss of steady balanced psture and gait on the
    ipsilateral side
  80. Lesions of the cortex cause motor dysfunction on
    contralateral

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