worldciv.txt

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kat_jack
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139292
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worldciv.txt
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2012-04-29 22:38:33
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world civilization
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world civilization midterm
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  1. In 1453, the Ottomans conquered what major city that became the capitol of the ottoman empire and helped them expand into the Balkans?
    Constantinople
  2. By exploiting the rivalry between these 2 peoples, Suleiman was able to conquer most of Hungary.
    Austrians and French
  3. In the Ottoman Empire, this occupation became a source of abuse and corruption.
    tax farming
  4. What motivated Abbas' tolerance of Christian minorities?
    economic considerations to increase trade
  5. The conflicts between Ottoman and Safavid Empires began when this ruler instituted a "holy war" against the Shi'i and Safavid dynasty.
    Selim I
  6. What weakened the Safavid Empire and began its downfall?
    death of Shah Abbas
  7. What was the chief center of interest for Renaissance thinkers, writers and artists?
    man
  8. Who is considered the "father of Humanism" and a major early Italian Renaissance poet?
    Petrarch (Francesco Petrarca)
  9. What language did most Renaissance writers believe to be the supreme literary language?
    classical Latin
  10. This novel, regarded as the greatest ever written, is a rich depiction of human nobility and folly.
    Don Quixote
  11. This Northern Renaissance painter capitalized on the advantages of oil paints, excelling in portraits that seemed to live and breathe.
    Jan van Eyck
  12. One of the greatest women literary writers of the sixteenth century, her most famous work is Heptameron.
    Marguerite of Navarre
  13. To what was the hawker referring in his statement, "As soon as the coin in the coffer rings, the soul from purgatory springs?"
    indulgence
  14. Of the seven sacraments, why did Luther retain baptism and communion.
    biblical foundation
  15. By 1610 they effectively ended Portuguese dominance in the Indian Ocean.
    Dutch
  16. In African and Islamic cultures most slaves did not serve in this capacity.
    mine laborers
  17. At this major trading depot location, West African women controlled the sale of slaves brought from the interior regions.
    Goree Island
  18. What was the primary interest of the new colonies on the East Coast of North America during the seventeenth century?
    fur trade
  19. What was Columbus' reason for sailing West in 1492?
    pursue shorter route to Asia
  20. Who determined the territorial terms of the Treaty of Tordesillas in 1496?
    the pope
  21. With what were the English, French and Dutch occupied while the Spanish and Portuguese were exploiting Latin America?
    domestic problems
  22. Why did Southeast Asian Muslim rulers in the seventh century prefer a treaty with the Dutch instead of the Portuguese?
    religious freedom
  23. Who emerged as the dominant naval power from the American war of Independence?
    Britain
  24. In the sixteenth century how did Portugal ensure a steady supply of spices?
    made weak local rulers vassals
  25. How did Spain pay for its Chinese and Japanese imports?
    silver mined in Mexico and Peru
  26. Why was Babur victorious at the Battle of Panipat even though outnumbered ten to one?
    canons and guns
  27. This was a principal function of the Moghul Indian government.
    collection of taxes
  28. What event led to the end of the Indian dynastic era?
    British suppression of the Indian Mutiny
  29. During the Ming dynasty, how did one become a member of the bureaucracy?
    emperor appointment
  30. What was the major source of slaves during the early Ming dynasty?
    prisoners of war
  31. What was the primary purpose of Emperor Yung-lo's naval expeditions?
    promote trade
  32. What did Great Britain gain from its embassy in China in 1793?
    knowledge of China's inferior technology
  33. What was among the reasons that Ming officials and officers defected to the Manchus during their rise to power?
    Manchu appreciation of Chinese civilization
  34. What was the focus of the Ch'ing novel The Dream of the Red Chamber?
    women
  35. How was K'ang-hsi like Louis XIV of France and Akbar of Moghul India?
    consolidated a shaky government into a powerful autocratic state
  36. What was not an immediate result of the Rites Controversy?
    dissolution of Society of Jesus
  37. Why did Hideyoshi ban Christianity in 1587?
    questionable political loyalty of converts
  38. In what social situation were men and women allowed to mingle?
    special geisha quarters
  39. What hastened the unification of Japan?
    advent of firearms
  40. What fundamental problem was putting the greatest stress on the Tokugawa shogunate during the Late era?
    feudal restrictions
  41. Who was the dominant continental power after the first half of the seventeenth century?
    France
  42. Which policy pursued by Richelieu was even stronger under Mazarin?
    exalting royal authority
  43. What did Louis view to be the greatest threat to his despotic rule?
    aristocracy
  44. This French scientist-philosopher stressed rational understanding as the guarantor of truth.
    Descartes
  45. In Rousseau's The Social Contract, the doctrine of general will provided justification for what social/ political situation?
    suppression of individual freedom
  46. His musical compositions combined comic and tragic themes that transcended his age.
    Mozart
  47. This New Scientist declared that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.
    Newton
  48. Enlightened despots took all the following measures to reconstruct their states and gain support except:
    expand power of the nobility
  49. These rulers provide the most spectacular example of the rise of absolutism in central and eastern Europe.
    Hohenzollern dynasty
  50. Frederick II's enlightenment reforms included all but:
    religious toleration for all
  51. All of the following were accomplished by Russian Tsar Ivan III except:
    instituted serdom
  52. Under Peter the Great, which of the following reforms were not instituted?
    abolished taxes
  53. The mestizo rebel José Gabriel Túpac Amaru was all of the following except:
    firm supporter of the corrupt local officials
  54. In what ways were black slaves unsuccessful in resisting enslavement in Latin America?
    revolt in the Caribbean
  55. What were appointed city governments that administered the surrounding country-side in Spanish America?
    cabildos
  56. What power was restricted from the governor of a British North American colony?
    The assembly's power to pay his salary
  57. American rebels against the British were plagued by all the following except:
    the massive distance across the Atlantic to send supply, troops, and communications.
  58. Who wrote, "It is the will of heaven for our countries to be sundered forever?"
    John Adams
  59. Between 1803-1826, the United States was able to accomplish all the following except:
    claim part of southern Canada
  60. What did Vitus Bering discover in 1728?
    Asia and North America were separated by body of water
  61. After 1763 who owned Louisiana?
    Spanish and Britain
  62. Who dominated the slave trade outside Brazil by the mid-eighteenth century?
    British and New Englanders
  63. By the 1750s, all these areas were the focus of the British and French worldwide expansion struggle except?
    East Asia
  64. Who owned most of the land (30-35%) in France under the Old Regime?
    peasants
  65. The French Constitution of 1791 allowed the king to keep all the following powers except:
    direct internal affairs
  66. As a result of the Congress of Vienna in 1814, which country was not a part of the Quadruple Alliance?
    France
  67. After sucessful revolt against Spain, the constitutions of Spanish American states set up liberal republics with all but the following:
    real civil rights for the masses
  68. Among European powers, which country was relatively unaffected by revolutionary activity of 1848?
    Great Britain and Russia
  69. In an attempt to save his throne, Napoleon III allowed all the following liberal concessions except:
    increased Legislative Assembly powers to include amending bills.
  70. The Austro-Hungarian Empire survived in spite of the discontentment of this ethnic group.
    ethnic Slavs
  71. In the Treaty of San Stefano, the Ottoman Empire gave complete independence to all the following but:
    Bosnia
  72. In the second half of the nineteenth century, women enjoyed all the following except:
    safer working conditions than men in factories.
  73. Which group of workers was not a central concern of the Socialists?
    agricultural peasants'
  74. Which was the last major European power to industrialize?
    Russia
  75. Which of the following did not contribute to the United States' success in industrializing?
    strong government support
  76. The Industrial Revolution offered many opportunities to accumulate great wealth and therefore closed the gap between upper and lower classes
    False!
  77. Discussion Question 1:
    -what does the word "Renaissance" mean?
    -what region of Europe did it start?
    -why did it start there?
    -how did it spread?
    -who is the father of Humanism?
    -what is Humanism?
    -in what fields were major achievements made during Renaissance?
    -leading figures?
    • -renewal/rebirth
    • -Tuscany/Central Italy
    • -because of Italy's wealth, art, and architecture
    • -invention of the printing press
    • -Petrarch
    • - humans can decide on the morals and values they want to possess
    • - art, religion, literature
    • - Leonardo da Vinci(art), Petrarch(religion), Giovanni Boccaccio(literature
  78. Dicussion Question 2:
    -German priest who started Reformation
    -95 theses?
    -2 major Protestant religions formed?
    -who formed them?
    -what did they believe?
    • -Martin Luther
    • -theses corrected a misconstrued laws or practices enforced by the church
    • -Calvanism, The Church of England/Anglican Church
    • -John Calvin, King Henry VIII
    • -Calvinism(neither man/woman can change their fate)Church of England(followed laws of the Book of Common Prayer)
  79. Dicussion Question 3:
    -factors that drove Europe's interest in sailing explorations to Southeast Asia?
    -desirable goods available in Southeast Asia?
    -2 European countries dominated colonization and trade in Southeast Asia?
    -2 countries that replaced^^^^^^^^during the 1600s?
    -why were they replaced?
    • -profitable trade and valuable goods
    • -spices, priceless stones, porcelains, and silks
    • -Portugal and Spain
    • -Dutch and English
    • -Spain annexed Portugal and the Dutch revolted against Spain. The Spanish Armada attempted to conquer England, but it was terminated by a storm. The replaced no longer had naval power, and their power had been lost.
  80. Discussion Question 4:
    -who were the Manchus?
    -how did they seize power?
    -major aspects of Manchu government, economy, and society?
    -describe Manchu's growing relationship with European countries and how they viewed the Europeans.
    • -made up the Ch'ing Dynasty
    • -gained power accidentally because of rebellions and great leadership ability
    • -Government modeled after Chinese ideas;developed army and used it to expand;not a lot of wars(because of peace economy prospered); strong rice crops(resulted in steady population growth and better public health);feudalism was in place
    • - Manchu's felt they were superior to Europeans; Manchu's did little importing from Europe because they relied on themselves for most goods; mostly exported goods to Europe and the West
  81. Discussion Question 5:
    -what was the Scientific Revolution?
    -major advances in knowledge made during ^^^^^?
    -what was the Enlightenment?
    -what was ^^^^ it base on?
    -how was Scientific Revolution related to the Enlightenment?
    -who were the philosophes and how was reason important to them?
    • -a movement in which changes and advancements occurred(not actually a revolution)
    • -scientific method;important tools(thermometer, microscope);advances in astronomy(fueled by interest in astronomy)
    • -movement in which people formed new ideas and views about society, the economy, and politics
    • -based on ideas that originated from te Renaissance and the Reformation
    • -related to the Scientific Revolution because of the impact they had on society
    • -Philosophes were a group of writers who used rational thinking to solve the problems that were occuring
  82. Discussion Question 7:
    -some main causes of the French Revolution?
    -what changes did it cause in French society?
    -who was Napoleon Bonaparte and how did he come to power?
    -what happened to France under his rule?
    -how did he change Europe?
    • -economic, political, and social problems
    • -prices were raised while wages were lowered, which caused the gaps between the various classes to widen
    • -he was born on the island of Corsica;because of downfall of monarch he attained a high rank in the artillery;he and his army had many victories but failed at conquering the eastern Mediterranean; returned to france(ppl didnt know about loss only victories); used strength of the troops to make law makers turn over power to him
    • -Great Britain declared war on France because they feared Napoleon's power; Continental System was set in place; France involved in war for most of Napoleon's reign
    • -Napoleon's reforms were continually used after his downfall throughout Europe
  83. Discussion Question 6:
    -when and where did Industrial Revolution begin?
    -what were essential components for its beginning?
    -what were essential resources needed to feed industry?
    -what changes in society helped industrial development?
    -how did new sources of energy help industrialism?
    -what were some key original industries of the revolution?
    • -Great Britain;18th century
    • -good supply of natural resources;laborers, economic demand;advances in technology, and business
    • -iron and coal
    • -increased population called for an increase in agricultural production; higher demand for goods
    • -steam engine was able to do work of up to "twenty horses";steam engine made processes in industry easier and more efficient
    • -the cotton, iron, and coal industries were essential to the industrial revoulution
  84. In "partitioning" and annexing African territories, European governments avoided the following to obtain land.
    direct military confrontations
  85. Under the banner of Islam, he led unified Sudanese tribes against Ottoman, Egyptian and British invaders.
    The Mahdi (Muhammad Ahmad Abdulla)
  86. In repelling foreign invasions, the Ethiopians were able to do all but the following:
    remain independent after the 1930s
  87. Which country joined British forces to crush Boer resistance?
    Australia
  88. By the nineteenth century, the formerly great Ottoman Empire was
    in serious decline.
  89. Which of the
    following was not a "Tanzimat" reform in the Ottoman Empire between 1839-1876?
    consideration of the Islamic population's religous and cultural attitudes
  90. Because of the "Eastern Question," why did the British and French act to keep the Ottoman Empire alive in the eastern Mediterrean?
    to restrict and constrain Russian military advances
  91. What led to the peaceful negotiations of the end of the Crimean war?
    death of Tsar Nicholas I
  92. Why did company sepoys challenge British control of India in 1857?
    religious issues
  93. During the costly armaments race after 1870, the following powers did not adopt conscription?
    US and Britain
  94. Which of Bismarck's system of alliances signed in 1887 provided for the neutrality of Germany and Russia?
    Reinsurance Treaty
  95. Which of the following colonies did not aid Great Britain in WWI, but aided France instead?
    North African
  96. After 1915, Britain suffered defeat at all of the following battlefields outside Europe except:
    Jerusalem, Syria, and the Palestine.
  97. After joining the war in 1917, which of the following what was not immediately provided by the US to the allies?
    troops
  98. Over what issue was the most serious disagreement between the Big Four during the Paris Peace Conference?
    future of the the Rhineland
  99. In 1919, which of the "Allies" recieved the Alsace-Lorraine region from Germany as part of the Treaty of Versailles?
    France
  100. Which of the following Arab territories taken from the Ottoman Empire as part of the Treaty of Versailles were not divided among France and Great Britain?
    Mecca and Medina
  101. Which of the following countries did not suffer from financial losses in foreign markets during World War I?
    United States
  102. Which of the following was not a cause of the Great Depression in America?
    under production
  103. In 1923 professional soldier Reza Khan overthrew the Qajar Persian dynasty and used all the following to modernize Iran except:
    reformed the military and financial administration
  104. Which of these men was a leader of the pan-African movement?
    Dr. W.E.B. DuBois
  105. According to the chapter, Porfirio Diaz allowed foreign investors large holdings in all the Mexican markets but this one.
    domestic fishing
  106. Which of the following was not promoted by Mohandas Gandhi in India?
    violent protest and guerilla warfare
  107. In India what language became the common language of the growing middle class?
    English
  108. How many soldiers did the Chinese Communists lose during The Long march?
    80,000
  109. What philosophy was most closely aasociated with the 2,000-year-old Chinese imperial system and culture?
    Confucianism
  110. What farmers did Stalin wish to dispossess under his plan for mechanized collective farming?
    Kulaks
  111. Which one of these was not a welfare program provided by the Soviet government?
    religious instruction in schools
  112. Hitler was able to lead Germany out of their depression by investing in massive public works programs. Which program was not mentioned in the chapter?
    building a huge Aircraft Carrier navy
  113. Hitler viewed the civil war in Spain as a perfect chance to
    test his reequipped military.
  114. Which one of these countries did not belong to the Axis Alliance?
    USSR
  115. World War II began on Sptember 1, 1939 when Germany
    invaded Poland
  116. To what group was Winston Churchill speaking when he said, "Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few?"
    Royal Air Force (RAF) after winning the Battle of Britain
  117. Hitler's biggest mistake during World War II was his 1941 invasion of the massive
    Soviet Union
  118. Following the Japanese surprise attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, they quickly captured all the following except:
    Hawaii
  119. In 1942, the turning point in the war in the Pacific came when the U.S. navy defeated the Japanese navy at the:
    Battles of Coral Sea and Midway
  120. During 1943 and 1943 the Allies had pushed the Germans back on the Eastern Front, North Africa, and Italy, but on "D Day" June 6, 1944 they opened the second front in Europe by invading:
    coast of Normandy, France
  121. World War II in the Pacific against the Japanese ended in August 1945 because the U.S.
    dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki
  122. At the beginning of the Cold War, which of the following Communist countries followed an independent, nationalistic course under Marshal Josep Tito?
    Yugoslavia
  123. According to the Buruch Plan, suggested by the U.S. at the beginning of the Cold War,
    all nations would refrain from making atomic boms and submit to inspection
  124. Not a beneficiary of the Marshall Plan was
    the Soviet Union
  125. This country was not a member of the NATO alliance.
    East Germany
  126. "Operation Vittles" in 1948-1949 was the
    the Berlin Airlift to supply blockaded West Berlin
  127. What does ICBM mean?
    Intercontinental Ballistic Missile
  128. The Act of Westminster of 1931 made official the de facto independence of all these British states except:
    India
  129. When India was given indepence from Britain in 1947, this nation was split off for Indian Muslims to settle in:
    Pakistan
  130. Which of the following British colonies in Southeast Asia had not gained their independence by 1958?
    Hong Kong
  131. Because of its vast mineral wealth, what area became the battleground for Cold War competition in Africa?
    Congo
  132. Both the United States and Soviet Union superpowers wanted new nations to provide all the following except:
    economic and technological aid
  133. Which Asian country did the Soviet Union believe the United States would not protect if invaded?
    South Korea
  134. Of the four states that emerged from Indochina, which was Communist-dominated?
    North Vietnam
  135. What event marked the beginning of radical changes in China in 1980?
    Sino-Soviet split over non-renewed Treaty of Alliance
  136. What political ideology did many Latin Americans feel was the best approach to economic social and political justice?
    Marxism
  137. Which of the following changes did not occur in 1959 when Fidel Castro initially assumed control of Cuba?
    made liberal social reforms
  138. In which of the following states did the US not intervene directly?
    Chile
  139. Under the Reagan administration the following was not accomplished.
    balanced budget
  140. Which of the following was the first agreement between the Soviets and the U.S. to provide for actually decreasing the numbers existing weaponry?
    Intermediate Nuclear Forces treaty of 1988
  141. Of the following nations that gained their independence from the Soviet Union by 1991, which was the poorest and had the most hard-line Communist regime?
    Albania
  142. Which of the following did the Soviet economic system not provide?
    goods consumers demanded
  143. Which of the following was not a problem caused by the integrated West and East German economy?
    few consumer goods
  144. In the 1950s, why did the US view Egypt's leader Gamul Abdul Nasser with increasing hostility?
    neutral stance during Cold War
  145. Which of the following areas was not occupied by Israel after the Six Day Way?
    Lebanon
  146. Of the following, which did Iran not experience under the Shah's program of industrialization during the 1960s-1970s?
    economic decline
  147. Concerning gender equality, which of the following women were not elected to the highest offices in their Muslim countries?
    Ismelda Marccos
  148. Which of the following planned dam projects will displace at least three million people in China?
    Three Gorges Dam

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