Exam #2 Ch. 6.txt

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ralejo
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139381
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Exam #2 Ch. 6.txt
Updated:
2012-03-04 17:41:20
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bio 205 exam
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bio 205 exam 2
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  1. Types of Muscles
    • Smooth
    • Cardiac
    • Skeletal
  2. Smooth muscle
    • Single nucleus
    • No striations, hollow organs/blood vessels (gap junctions)
    • Involuntary
    • Slow/long contraction (do not contract at once)
  3. Cardiac muscle
    • Single nucleus (per cell)
    • Branched nucleus
    • Striations
    • Heart wall
    • Intercalated disks
  4. Intercalated disks
    Plasma membranes jam packed with gap junctions passing back and forth through the cell
  5. Skeletal Muscle
    • Multinucleated
    • Striated
    • Voluntary
    • Attached to skeleton
    • Cells run entire length of muscle
  6. Skeletal Muscle Functions
    • 1. Support body
    • 2. Make bones move
    • 3. Help maintain body temperature
    • 4. Help cardiovascular/lymphatic vessel movement
    • 5. Protect internal organs
    • 6. Stabilize joints
  7. Vertebrates
    Animals whose muscle is outside of vertebrae
  8. Skeletal Muscle Attachments
    • Tendon
    • Origin - lesser mobile bone (ex: end next to ball-and-socket joint)
    • Insertion - more mobile bone (ex: closer to hinge (elbow))
  9. Skeletal Muscle Names
    • 1. Size
    • 2. Shape
    • 3. Location
    • 4. Fiber direction
    • 5. Attachment
    • 6. Number of attachments
    • 7. Action
  10. Muscle Contraction
    Pull insertion closer to origin
  11. Muscle movement
    • Prime mover � main moving muscle
    • Synergist � working together in the same movement
    • Antagonist � opposite movement
  12. Basic skeletal muscle
    • Whole muscle --> Muscle bundle (fascicle) --> Single muscle cell (fiber) --> myofibril --> myosin, actin, sarcomere, z-line
  13. Skeletal Muscle Cell Structure
    • Sarcolemma: plasma membrane (plasmalemma)
    • Sarcoplasm: cytoplasm
    • Sarcoplasmic Reticulum: endoplasmic reticulum
    • T-Tubule: stored calcium (made of sarcolemma)
  14. Neuromuscular Junction
    • Glycogen for ATP
    • Lots of mitochondria
    • Sarcolemma
    • Synaptic cleft (junction between 2 cells)
    • Acetylcholine in vesicles
  15. Muscle Fiber Contraction
    • Step 1:
    • Nerve impulses arrive
    • Acetylcholine (ACh) is released (neurotransmitter) by exocytosis
    • Step 2:
    • Ach in synaptic cleft
    • Binds to receptors in sarcolemma
    • Impulses spread along sarcolemma
    • Travels down t-tubule
    • Arrives in sarcoplasmic reticulum where calcium is stored
    • Step 3:
    • Calcium released from SR
    • Binds with troponin
    • Causes shift in tropomyosin
    • Biding sites on actin exposed
    • Myosin binds to actin
    • Step 4:
    • Myosin bends and pulls actin
    • ATP energy used
    • Calcium unbinds
    • ATP binds/energy used
    • Myosin detaches from actin
    • Process repeats and muscle shortens
  16. Muscle Cramp
    • Contracting but not relaxing
    • Dehydrated
    • Imbalanced ions
  17. Botox
    • Made from botulism
    • No muscle contraction
  18. Rigor Mortis
    • No ATP is released for relaxation
    • Rigor mortis goes away�.EVENTUALLY
    • Lysosomes begin destroying proteins making everything detach
  19. Tetanus
    • Found in dirt
    • If puncture in a place of no oxygen, releases toxin
    • Produces exotoxin
    • Prevent muscle relaxation
    • Makes us contract so much that we begin breaking bones
  20. Motor unit
    Motor neuron and all muscle fiber it innervates (controls)
  21. Axon
    • Muscle fiber ratio
    • Axons controlling smaller amounts of fiber have more controlled movements
    • Axons controlling more amounts of fiber have more strength in movement
    • Eye muscles 1:23
    • Leg Muscle 1:1000
  22. All-or-None Principle
    Muscle fibers that the axon is connected to will all contract or none of them will contract
  23. Slow Twitch Muscle Fibers
    • "Dark" meat - leg and thigh
    • More blood vessels
    • Myoglobin stores oxygen
    • Aerobic (move to mitochondria and make lots of ATP)
    • Breaks down ATP slowly and continuously
    • Long-term exercising
    • High endurance
  24. Fast Twitch Muscle Fibers
    • "White" meat - breast and upper wing
    • Short-term contraction
    • Explosive
    • Fatigues easily because it uses all ATP quickly
    • Anaerobic (without oxygen)
    • Less mitochondria
    • Strength
  25. Why Stretch? Warm up/Cool down?
    • Before:
    • Increase heart rate for oxygen going to muscle
    • Decrease risk of pulling muscle
    • After:
    • Increase range of motion
    • Cool down:
    • Need to keep blood flowing by decreasing intensity of exercise
    • Extra blood flow to decrease lactic acid
    • Need ATP

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