BIO 112

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switch2002
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139454
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BIO 112
Updated:
2012-03-08 00:03:37
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deffinitions answers 35 36 38 39
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CH. 35,36,38,39
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  1. Organ:
    Several types of tissue that together carry out specific functions
  2. Tissue:
    A group of cells within a common structure
  3. Cell:
    Basic units of living organisms
  4. Taproot system:
    One main vertical root gives rise to lateral roots (branch roots)
  5. Lateral (branch) roots:
    Roots extending away from the main (or taproot) root
  6. Fibrous root system:
    Many lateral roots with no main root
  7. Adventitious roots:
    Arise from stems or leaves
  8. Node (on a stem):
    The stem region of a plant where one or more leaves attach
  9. Internode (on a stem):
    The stem regions between nodes in plants
  10. Apical bud (terminal bud):
    Shoot tip; allows elongation of a young shoot
  11. Axillary bud (lateral bud):
    Buds born in the axil, has the potential to form a lateral shoot
  12. Blade (of a leaf):
    Flattened portion of leaf
  13. Petiole (of a leaf):
    Non-leafy part of leaf, attaches the leaf blade to the stem
  14. Leaf sheath:
    Wraps around stem at the bottom
  15. Sessile leaf:
    Directly attached to substrate
  16. Veins (of a leaf):
    Vascular tissue, net-like network in leaves
  17. Tissue system:
    Transports substances throughout the plant
  18. Epidermis:
    Single layer of cells, covering outer body of plant
  19. Cuticle:
    Waxy coating on surface of epidermis
  20. Periderm:
    Replaces epidermis in woody plants
  21. Trichome:
    Hair-like outgrowth of epidermal cells
  22. Meristem:
    Perpetually embryonic tissue
  23. Apical meristem:
    At the tip of roots, shoots, auxiliary buds, aid in primary growth
  24. Lateral meristem:
    Ads thickness to woody plants, is secondary growth
  25. Vascular cambium:
    Ads layers of vascular tissue
  26. Cork cambium:
    Replaces the epidermis with periderm
  27. Primary growth:
    Produces primary plant body
  28. Mesophyll: (middle-leaf)
    Leaf ground tissue
  29. Palisade mesophyll:
    Toward upper epidermis; photosynthesis
  30. Spongy mesophyll:
    Toward lower epidermis; gas exchange
  31. Secondary growth:
    Occurs in stems and roots of woody plants, ads width
  32. Early wood:
    Grows early in the spring (cells have large diameters) secondary xylem
  33. Late wood:
    Grows late summer and fall, secondary xylem
  34. Dendrochronology:
    The analysis of tree ring growth patterns
  35. Heartwood:
    Oldest, inner layers of xylem; non-functional
  36. Sapwood:
    Outer functional layers of xylem
  37. Bark:
    Periderm and secondary phloem
  38. Lenticels:
    Pores in the periderm for gas exchange
  39. Transpiration:
    (Process in xylem) Changes in turgor pressure w/in guard cells open/close stomata
  40. Translocation:
    Process by which phloem transports products of photosynthesis
  41. What are the three basic organs found in plants?
    (1) Roots (2) Stems (3) Leaves
  42. What functions do roots serve in plants?
    Anchorage, absorbing water/minerals, storing organic materials
  43. What function do root hairs serve in plants?
    Absorptions of water/minerals, increases surface area
  44. Types of modified root systems found in plants (structure/function):
    • (1)prop roots: (ex. Corn) Grow out of stem, support plant
    • (2) storage roots: (ex. Carrots, yams) Stores nutrients (3) aerial roots: (ex. Orchids) Absorbs nutrients from atmosphere
    • (4)pneumatophores: (ex. Mangroves) Gas exchange
  45. What functions do stems serve in plants?
    Conduits for nutrients and is the support structure for leaves
  46. Types of modified stems found in plants:
    • rhizomes
    • stolens
    • tubers
    • corms
    • thorns
    • tendrils
  47. Modified stem, structure and function of stolons
    (ex. Grasses) Horizontal stem above ground-asexual reproduction
  48. Modified stem, structure and function of tubers:
    (ex. Potatoes) Swollen root tip of rhizomes-asexual reproduction/storage
  49. Modified stem, structure and function of corms:
    (ex. Gladiolus) Compressed modified stem-storage/asexual reproduction
  50. Modified stem, structure and function of thorns:
    (ex. Roses) outgrowth of stem tissue-protection from herbivores
  51. Modified stem, structure and function of tendrils
    (ex. Grapes) Climbing-support
  52. Modified stem, structure and function of rhizomes
    (ex. ginger) Horizontal underground stems- asexual reproduction/storage
  53. What functions do leaves serve in plants?
    Is the main photosynthetic organ in most vascular plants
  54. Type of modified leaves:
    • bulbs
    • tendrils
    • spines
    • storage
    • reproduction
    • carnivorous
    • bracts
  55. Modified leaf, structure/function of tendrils
    (ex. Peas) Climbing
  56. Modified leaf, structure/function of spines:
    (ex. Cactus) outgrowth from stem-protection from herbivores
  57. Modified leaf, structure/function of storage leaves:
    (ex. Aloe Vera) Flaccid leaves- water storage
  58. Describe the following types of modified leaves found in plants (basic structure and function) and give an example of each type:
    reproductive:(ex. Kalanchloe) Leaves- asexual reproduction
  59. Modified leaf, structure/function of carnivorous leaves:
    (ex.Venus fly trap) various structures- food intake
  60. Modified leaf, structure/function of bracts leaves:
    (ex. Poinsettias) looks like petals- attracts pollinators
  61. Modified leaf, structure/function of bulb leaves:
    (ex onions/garlic) fleshy leaves-storage
  62. What functions do the following tissues serve in plants?
    dermal tissue:
    Outer tissue, acts as covering
  63. What functions do the following tissues serve in plants?
    Vascula tissue:
    Moves water/nutrients throughout plant
  64. What functions do the following tissues serve in plants?
    Xyem:
    Composed of various cell types; moves water/nutrients from roots to leaves
  65. What functions do the following tissues serve in plants?
    Phloem:
    Composed of sieve tubes & companions; moves products of photosynthesis to needed regions in a plant
  66. What functions do the following tissues serve in plants?
    Ground tissue:
    Serves as structure, storage of nutrients and metabolism
  67. What functions do trichomes serve in plants?
    Deters herbivores/insects, reduces pathogenic infection, reduces waterless, protects against UV radiation
  68. What is transported by xylem, and in what direction does it move within a plant?
    Water/nutrients, conducts movement upward toward leaves
  69. What is transported by phloem and in what direction is it transported within a plant?
    Products of photosynthesis, conducts movement of products throughout plant to needed areas
  70. What do we mean by “sources” and “sinks” in terms of sugar movement within a plant?
    • Sources= where organic molecules are produced or stored
    • Sinks= where organic molecules are needed for energy
  71. Describe determinate and indeterminate patterns of growth, as applied to plants.
    Determinate plant growth occurs throughout its life, indeterminate growth stops after reaching certain size/maturity
  72. What function does the root cap serve in plants?
    Protects the apical meristem
  73. What is the function of the endodermis in roots?
    Controls what moves into the xylem
  74. What is the function of the pericycle in roots?
    Outermost layer of vascular tissue where lateral roots arise
  75. What is the function of the vascular cambium in plants?
    Produces secondary body of plant (xylem and phloem)
  76. What does secondary xylem become in a mature plant?
    Wood
  77. What causes the “rings” we see in woody stems?
    Secondary xylem- early wood and late wood
  78. What information can be obtained by analyzing tree rings?
    The environment during the trees development & growth rate (ex. fires)
  79. Why is it NOT a good idea to girdle a tree (i.e., remove a strip of bark all the way around the tree)?
    Strips off phloem which causes the tree to die (nutrient path destroyed)
  80. 24. Explain how the following types of plants obtain nutrients – either in addition to or instead of photosynthesis:
    epiphytes:
    parasitic plants:
    carnivorous plants:
    • epiphytes: Grows on another plant but does not affect host
    • parasitic plants: Grows on another plant absorbing sugar and minerals
    • carnivorous plants: Obtains nitrogen from digesting prey
  81. Apical meristem initiates primary growth, producing primary xylem and primary phloem, as well as the vascular cambium.

    Secondary growth occurs at the vascular cambium, which forms secondary xylem (wood) and secondary phloem (inner bark).

    The cork cambium produces cork (outer bark).
  82. Anther:
    Top of stamens filament; divided into pollen sacs which pollen grains form
  83. Pollen sac (microsporangium):
    Structure of sporophyte where microspores are produced via meiosis
  84. Complete flower:
    Contains 4 organs, sepals, petals, stamens (male organs), carpels (female organs)
  85. Incomplete flower:
    Lacks 1 of 4 organs (sepals, petals, stamens, carpels)
  86. Inflorescence:
    Clusters of flowers
  87. Generative cell (of a pollen grain):
    Forms 2 sperm in pollen grain
  88. Tube cell (of a pollen grain):
    Produces pollen tube
  89. Pollen tube:
    Produced by pollen grain for sperm to reach egg
  90. Pollination:
    Transfer of pollen from anther to stigma
  91. Endosperm:
    Food storage for developing embryo
  92. Cotyledons: (seed-leaves)
    leaf like structure in seeds of flowering plants
  93. Accessory fruit:
    Contains additional floral parts in addition to ovaries
  94. Fragmentation (as related to asexual reproduction in angiosperms):
    Separation of a parent plant into parts that develop into whole plants
  95. Apomixis:
    Asexual reproduction of seeds without fertilization
  96. Pollination syndrome:
    Coevolved traits of flowers and pollinators
  97. What constitutes the male gametophyte in angiosperms?
    Tube cell and generative cell
  98. What constitutes the female gametophyte in angiosperms?
    (Embryo sac) Antipodal cells (3), Polar nuclei (2), Egg (1), Synergids (2)
  99. What does a fertilized ovule develop into?
    A seed
  100. What does an ovary develop into (after fertilization) in angiosperms?
    A fruit
  101. List the four modified leaves that make up a flower and give the function of each.
    (1) Petal-attracts pollinators (2) Sepal- protection (3) Stamen-male reproductive organs (4) Carpels- Female reproductive organs
  102. Be familiar with the life cycle of angiosperms.
    Seed, flower-Anther, microsporangium, microsporocyte (2n) meiosis, microspore (n) gametophyte in pollen grain, fertilization. Ovary, Ovule (2n), megasporangium (2n), meiosis, megaspore (n), fertilization. Seed (embryo, endosperm, seed coat)
  103. Understand the relationships among microsporangia, microsporocytes, microspores,
    and male gametophytes in angiosperms.
    Anther, Microsporangia, microsporocytes (2n), microspores (n) male gametophyte (tube cell and generative cell)
  104. Understand the relationships among megasporangia, megasporocytes, megaspores, and female gametophytes in angiosperms.
    Megasporangium, Megasporocytes (2n), Megaspore (n), female gametophyte (embryo sac)
  105. What are the 8 nuclei that make up an embryo sac, and what are the functions of the various nuclei?
    Antipodal cells (3) unknown function, Polar nuclei (2) make sperm and nutritive tissue, Egg (1) becomes seed, Synergids (2) attracts and guides pollen tube
  106. What characteristics of flowers would make them most likely to be pollinated by wind:
    Pollen grains are captured easily by shape/surface of flower
  107. What characteristics of flowers would make them most likely to be pollinated by water:
    Pollen grains can easily be dispersed via water for aquatic flowers
  108. What characteristics of flowers would make them most likely to be pollinated by beetles:
    The putrid odor produced by some flowers
  109. What characteristics of flowers would make them most likely to be pollinated by bees:
    nectar
  110. What characteristics of flowers would make them most likely to be pollinated by butterfies:
    fragrance of flowers
  111. What characteristics of flowers would make them most likely to be pollinated by moths:
    fragrance and colors of white or yellow
  112. What characteristics of flowers would make them most likely to be pollinated by flies:
    odor of rotten meat produced by some flowers
  113. What characteristics of flowers would make them most likely to be pollinated by wasps:
    nectar
  114. What characteristics of flowers would make them most likely to be pollinated by birds:
    nectar
  115. What characteristics of flowers would make them most likely to be pollinated by bats:
    nectar and fragrance
  116. Explain what happens during double fertilization.
    One sperm fertilizes the egg, forming a diploid zygote. Other sperm combines with the polar nuclei, giving rise to the triploid (3n) food-storing endosperm
  117. Describe the basic structure of a seed.
    Embryo, endosperm, hard protective coating
  118. What happens to the endosperm in most eudicot seeds?
    Exported to cotyledons
  119. What directly nourishes the developing embryo in most eudicot seeds?
    Cotyledons
  120. What directly nourishes the developing embryo in most monocot seeds?
    Endosperm
  121. Why is seed dormancy considered an evolutionary advantage?
    The seed can wait for a favorable environment before sprouting
  122. Describe the basic structure and developmental origin of the following fruit types.simple, aggregate and multiple fruit:
    • simple fruit: Single carpel or several fused carpels
    • aggregate fruit: Single flower with multiple, separate carpels
    • multiple fruit: Group of flowers (inflorescence); the ovaries fuse into a single fruit
  123. What structural adaptations of fruits would make them most likely to be dispersed by water:
    Water proof or buoyant
  124. What structural adaptations of fruits would make them most likely to be dispersed by wind
    Wing or parachute shape
  125. What structural adaptations of fruits would make them most likely to be dispersed by carried on animals fur:
    Spikey or barbed
  126. What structural adaptations of fruits would make them most likely to be dispersed by being eaten by animals:
    Fleshy, good tasting
  127. What structural adaptations of fruits would make them most likely to be dispersed by being picked up and burried by animal:
    Hard coating
  128. List the advantages and disadvantages of asexual reproduction in angiosperms.
  129. Advantages: Requires only one parent, no need for a pollinator, can be beneficial to a successful plant in a stable environment. Disadvantages: is vulnerable to local extinction if there is an environmental change
  130. List the advantages and disadvantages of sexual reproduction in angiosperms.
    • Advantages: generates genetic variation that makes evolutionary adaptation possible in a changing environment seed dispersal seed dormancy
    • Disadvantages: requires two parents (and possibly pollinators) seedlings are more vulnerable than vegetative propagules
  131. Cite four mechanisms that prevent (or greatly reduce) self-fertilization in angiosperms.
    (1) have male and female flowers on separate plants (2) separate male and female flowers on the same plant (3) stamens and carpels that mature at different times, or are arranged to prevent self-pollination (4) Self-incompatibility, a plant’s genetic ability to reject its own pollen (blocks growth of pollen tube)
  132. Hormone:
    Chemical signals that help coordinate growth, development, and responses to stimuli
  133. Tropism:
    Any response resulting in curvature of organs toward stimulus
  134. Phototropism:
    Growth towards light
  135. Gravitropism:
    Growth regulated by gravity (roots down, shoots up)
  136. Thigmotropism:
    Growth response to touch
  137. Cite the effects of natural auxin on plants that we discussed in class.
    Controls lateral & adventitious root formation
  138. Cite the commercial uses of auxin (other than as an herbicide) that we discussed in class.
    Rooting growth, production of seedless fruit, production of roots in culture dishes
  139. Why are synthetic auxins commonly used as herbicides on lawns, golf courses, and other turf areas?
    Kills weeds (eudicots) but not grass (monocots)
  140. Cite the effects of natural cytokinin on plants that we discussed in class.
    Lateral bud development
  141. Cite the commercial uses for cytokinin that we discussed in class.
    Delaying senescence (aging/death of leaves)
  142. Cite the effects of natural gibberellin on plants that we discussed in class.
    Stem elongation & cell division
  143. Cite the commercial uses of gibberellin that we discussed in class.
    Production of dwarf varieties of plants (by reducing gibberellin)
  144. Cite the effects of natural abscisic acid on plants that we discussed in class.
    Promotes seed dormancy
  145. Cite the commercial uses of abscisic acid that we discussed in class.
    Applied to plants to withstand drought
  146. Cite the effects of natural ethylene on plants that we discussed in class.
    Emits gas which signals other plants to start defense mechanisms
  147. Cite the commercial uses of ethylene that we discussed in class.
    Stimulates fruit ripening
  148. What mechanisms are used by plants to help them tolerate drought stress?
    Reduce transpiration by closing stomata, slow leaf growth, reduce exposed surface area, grow deeper roots
  149. What mechanism is used by plants to help them tolerate flooding?
    Enzymatic destruction of root cortex cells creates air tubes that help plants survive oxygen deprivation during flooding
  150. What mechanisms are used by plants to help them tolerate salt stress?
    Produces solutes which can tolerate high concentrations of salt
  151. What mechanism is used by plants to help them tolerate heat stress?
    Heat-shock proteins help protect other proteins from heat stress
  152. What mechanisms are used by plants to help them tolerate cold stress and / or
    freezing?
    Alter lipid composition of membranes
  153. What are the two basic types of defenses used by plants against herbivores / insects?
    (1) Physical (thorns, spines, thick cuticle, trichomes) (2) Chemical ( distasteful or toxic compounds)
  154. Explain how the “hypersensitive response” helps pants defend themselves against pathogens.
    Cell death around infection (to starve pathogen), produce agent to kill pathogen, builds wall around pathogen
  155. Explain how “systemic acquired resistance” helps plants defend themselves against pathogens.
    Makes defense genes throughout plant (like a vaccine
  156. What are the primary metabolites of plants? (necessary for life)
    Simple sugars, amino acids, nucleotides, fatty acids (and the macromolecules they make up)
  157. What are the three most common classes of secondary metabolites in plants?
    (1) Alkaloids (2) Terpenoids (3) Phenolics
  158. List 6 basic functions of plant secondary metabolites.
    (1) Chemical signals that enable plants to respond to environmental cues (2) Defense against herbivores (3) Defense against pathogens (4)Defense against competitors (5) Protection from UV radiation (6) Aid in pollen and seed dispersal

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