psych final

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psych final
2012-03-07 17:05:04
psych final

psych final
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  1. Emphasis on learning
  2. No human nature- people are influenced by what happens to them
  3. Anti-mentalism
  4. Didn’t focus on Unscientific- desires, wishes, goals, beliefs, emotions ect
  5. Scientific- observables- stimulus, response, environment ect
  6. No differences across species
  • It was anti-freud- he was getting too radical
  • People liked to think that if they changed the environment of troubled people everything would get better
  • Did many studies on rats and pigeons- could apply them to humans
  • 3. learning principles that are said to explain
    habituation, classical conditioning, instrumental conditioning
  • habituation
    • 1 of 3 principles that are said to explain everything.
    • It explains that there is a decline in response to stimuli that are repeatedly encountered- ppl get used to everything eventually
    • Noise, ticking, trains, ect
    • It is used as mechanism for directing attention to new stimuli
  • classical conditioning
    • 1 of 3 principles that are said to explain everything It is- association of one stimulus with another stimulus
    • Experiment where dog salivates when people walk in room
    • 2 kinds of reflexes/responses
    • 1. Unconditioned- non experienced dependent (innate response)
    • foodà salivate

    • 2. Conditioned/conditional- Experience dependent (learned) response
    • Dog salivates when bell rings after ringing it when feeding it

    • reinforced trails vs. unreinforced trials- get food sometimes
    • experimental extinction, reconditioning, spontaneous recover
  • When ones own behavior becomes associated with a positive or negative stimulus. This changes the frequency of ones subsequent behaviors
  • Learning what works and doesnt
  • Touching stove for 1st time
  • More voluntary than classical conditioning
  • Kaw if effect
  • Actions which precede intrinsically- rewarding stimuli will b more likely repeated
  • Stimuli may be intrinsically rewarding, or conditioned to be so
  • Reinforcement- increases the future probability of a behavior
  • Reinforces
  • Punishment- decreases
  • how to train a pig
    • 1. positive reinforcement- stimulus added to make a behavior more likely to occur
    • 2. Negative reinforcement- by removing something, making a behavior more likely to occur (pig runs into button so loud music gets turned off)

    3. Making a behavior less likely to happen by doing something- shock a pig when they attacka
  • pupil
    adjustable opening to the eye
  • iris
    colored structure on the surface of the eye surrounding the pupil
  • retina
    layer of visual receptors covering the back surface of the eyeball
  • cornea
    rigid transparent structure on the outer surface of the eyebal
  • lens
    flexable structure that can vary in thickness, enabling eyes to adjust to something in distance
  • fovea
    central area of human retina. adapted for highly detailed vision
  • cones
    • Adapted for color vision, daytime vision, detailed vision
    • Fovea consists only of cones
  • rods
    night vision
  • transduction
    where light is converted into electrochemical nerve impulses in rods and cones
  • binocular depth cues
    Properties of the visual system that facilitate depth perception by the nature of messages that are sent to the brain.
  • monocular disparity
    inherent ambiguity between size and distance
  • problem- size and distance
    vusual system has to deal with the fact that objects differin how much of the retina they hit (how big they appear), depending on how far away they are

    • Distance affects percieved size, but not the actual dize
    • use linear perspective
  • levin and simons
    discovered the brain is no exactly interpreting what it is seeing
  • types of memory
    • free recal- produce a response
    • Cued recal- recieve a hint
    • Recognition- choose the correct item among several options
  • chunking
    grouping items into meaningful sequences or clusters
  • primacy effect
    tendency to remember wel the first items
  • recency effect
    tendency to remember the final items
  • level of processing principle
    how easily you retrieve a memory depends on the number and types of associations
  • encodin specificity principle
    the associations you form at the time of learning will be the most effective retrieval cues later
  • mnemonic device
    any memory aide that relies on encoding each item in a specific way
  • method of loci
    • mnemonic device.
    • memorize a series of places, and then you use a vivid image to associate each location with somehting you want to remember
  • retrograde amnesia
    loss of memory for events that occured shortly before brain damage
  • anterograde amnesia
    inability to store new long term memories

    HM- accident caused him to constantly lose memory
  • Korsakoff's syndrome
    • condition caused by a prolonged deficiency of vitamin B, usually as a result of chronic alcoholism.
    • prefrontal cortex damage from stroke or head trauma
  • elizabeth loftus
    expert on human memory
  • confabulations
    • attempts to fill in the gaps of memory
    • patients with prefrontal cortex damage
  • conditional reflex
    learned- dog salivating
  • classical conditioning
    the process by which an organism learns a new association between 2 stimuli- a neutral stimulus and one that akready evokes a reflexive response
  • unconditioned stimulus
    event that automatically elicits an unconditioned response
  • unconditioned response
    action that the unconditioned stimulus elicits
  • conditioned response