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back scale of the brain where signals are sent through the spinal cord
- multi nucli
- myofbrillls- reason muscles can contract.
pull on actin to produce power
protien in a muscle tissue cell
lessthan optimal lenght
- fewer cross-bridge interaction= reduced ension development.
- the actins are over eachother and the myosin are not able to connect all of the fibers to it
- maximal cross-bridge interattion= maximal tension decelopment .
- the actins are spread out enough so te myosins are attached and are able to send out more strength.
single muscle (multi nucli)
- upward movement. it tightens/shortens your muscle.
- a positive movement
static or lsometric
the muscle stays the same way right in the middle it has no movement.
- very important and dangerous.
- negative movement.
- going downward the muscle expands.
where in your muscle is the strongest
the middle of the muscle thats where all the force is located at.
curved, twisted (pennate)
is aa leveraged focre, that creates rotation around an axis
the three parts that connect to a twitch type
spinal cord, peripheral nerve, and skeletal muscle
slow twitch type 1 SO
- slow oxidative fibers
- endurance last longer
fast-twitch type 2a fog
- fast oxidative glycolytic fibers
- higher performance last longer
- become stable
fast-twitch type 2b fg
- fast glycolytic fibers
- short and fast
can you change fiber?
sorta you can have a metabolic change which wont be like to acur.
primum, non nocere
first, do not harm
heart attack, lack of blood flow
- minimum stimulus
- the level that must be reached for an effect to be produced
- the start of the exercise learning
resistance, working harder pushing you self after you reached one goal.
the results you see after a constant overload
- progressive resistance
- after adapting then go beyond to adapt at a higher tencidy
- over trainging
- start to loose muscle and not able to perfrom as you once did
loosing your muscle and not working on it just letting it go
- diff gainings from diff traingings
- adaptation due to training are specific to the body part and the types of exerciseyou enhance`
- alternate in the trainings you do so you avoid injuries.
- "rexiprocal tension"
- goal- run a 10k, play with the kids
- enjoyment- outdoors
- type (or mode)-run, bike, weights
- frequency- exercise sessions per week
- intensity- often as a % of maximum
- time- duration, minutes or hours
the ability to overcome inertia
- 1. force that is produced by the muscle- sarcomeres in parallel
- 2. neural activation- signal from brain to muscle
- 3. stiffness of the cconnective tissue- greater stiffness= greater transmission of force
- 1. atp
- 2 glycoplytic- they start to produce atp
- 3. oxidative- with the midochondria start to porduce ATP
- rate of force development
- 1.type of motor protein- fast or slow.. how quick the pull on the actin
- 2. neural activation- message from the brain
- 3. pennation angle of the fibers- angle muscle=force
- 4 sacomeres in series
- 5. stiffness of the connective tissue
- the ablility to maintain force/power/speed
- 1. VO2MAX- maxmimum capacity for aerobic energy production
- 2. lactate threshold- maximum sustained velocity /power
- 3.movement economy- energy consumed to maintain a specific velocity/power
does muscle overcome inertia?
yes it does
the roles of muscles
- motor- muscle performs a shortening contraction to overcome inertia.
- brakes- muscle performs a lengthening contraction to reduce inertia
- struts- musce contracts isometrically to transmit forces
- spring- muscle use high power burst contraction to maintian intertia(cheta)
role of stiffness in power
higher passive stiffnes the higher you jump and sprint performance
how does traing performance increase?
increases with plyometric stiffness (jumo training)
consequences of stiffness?
your more vonurable to injuries
what plays a big rol in determining power and endurance but comes at the expense of injuries
what are the three variable that endurance it dependent on (not force/power/velocity)
- 1. maximum capacity for aerobic exercise
- 2. oxygen delivery
- 3. oxegen utilization
- lactte threshold
- 1. maximum sustained velocity/power
- movement economy
- 1. energy consumed to maintain a specific velocity/ power
strength gain occur as a result of systematic and progressive exercise of suffient frequency, intensity,and duration to cause adaptation
inscrease in aerobic capacity occur as a result of systematic and progressive execrise of sufficeient frequency, intensity, and duration to cause adaptation
how long does it take to increase in strenght
it beggings rapidly in the beggining of the first 6-8 week or intense workouts (during the 2nd learing stage)
load causes hypertrophy
this means that high loads are required in order to build up muscle mass.
force (load) v. velocity in muslce
the more you have enduracne the less muscle you have. more muscle you have less endurance you end up with
strenght training for muscle
- perfom repititions properly
- 1. limt leverage
- 2. limit momentum
- 3. contant muscular tension
- linear progression
- 1. use range or target rules
- 2. when ou reach the target increase weight
the # of repetitions (8) that you attempt to complete in a set
a group of targets that can be achieved prior to increasing the wieght (6-8)
why do you have to periodize
- 1. our goal is to perform well for one competition- then you periodize.
- 2. when you do high intensity training all the time you are injurying your self and do not allow your sellf(the body) to recover from your connective tissue.the low intesity workouts allow you slef to be able to recover.
- 3. mental progress- athletes tend to lower their self estiem because they see no result because the body only increases .01% per week.
physiological respone to ResEx
- after the exercise your body tends to break down protien synthesis and protien breakdown.
- both of these things are different.
- an acute resistence exercise increases both protien synthesis and degradation (breakdown).
whats the relationship between synthesus and breakdown?
at the third hour both portien and correlate.
what does resistance exercis do to protien balance? does it net growth or loss?
the resistance excersice decreases the negative protein balance seen during a fast, but does not shift it to the positive balance.
what does happens when you take in amino aids
it tends to increase protein synthesis and decrease degreadation resulting in a positive protien balance
what is mTORC1?
- 1. a protein kinase (protein that decorates other proteins with phosphate groups)- controls growth (increase in cell mass) and proliferation (increase in cell number) by modulating mRNA translation through phosphorylation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factors
- 2.involved in cell size regulationand metobolism- protien synthesis, protein degradation
- 3. activated by amino acids (specifically leucine)
what is required in oreder to increasse protien synthesis
mTORC1 is required.
2 glasses of milk =
what prevents muscle hypertrophy
the mtorc1 inhabitor rapamycin
what is the truth about building muscle
- trying to reach faliure will increase you from gaining more muscle..
- after resex theres an increase of protein synthesis and degradation that result good when we are in the fed ed which means we are building muscle
- due to mTORC1 muscle protien and mass are increased
what is VO2max
the oint in which oxygen intake does not continue to increase despite an increase in exercise intensity
what is one main thing that is the key to perform great
getting delivery of oxygen, if the heart is bigger then you are able to pump more oxygen in your system, thus your able to increase speed and perform better
mechanism of mitochondrial biogensis(more mitochondria) this is muscle for the long run
- exercise uses ATP and generates AMP this activates AMP kinase(the more you exercise the more you activate AMPK)
- muscle contraion increases calcium in th emuscle and this activates calcium/clamodulin kinase.
- both AMPK and CaMK increase PGC-1a (activates)
what activate CaMK
long and slow idistance
what activates AMPK
high intensity intervals
this does not occur
what does 1mile of walking or running expend in calories
hour many calories are there in a pound
- multiply how many calories you burn a day the days in which it last then divide by 3,500 and see how much wieght you lost
what does amino acids do to the body
it activates mTORC1 and increases strength adaptations
how much fluid should we be taking in before our workouts and how long before?
how much should you be drinking during your exercise
- .4-.6 of fluid 2-3 hours before
- .6-1,2 liters to replace all the fluid you lost
american college of sports medicine
advocate drinking ad libitum to increase muscle
effect of glycogen content on exercise performance
can directly affect the content of glycogen in muscle and increasing the content of glycogen in the muscle improves endurance
- inreasing this before a race makes your endurance last longer in relation to weight gain
- helps on endurance
how much is glycogen is too much??
- each g of glycogen brings- 3g of water
- therefore he put on 180g/kg muscle
- assuming muscle was 45% of his body then he has 29.25kg
- he felt very heavy
what do you need to get in order to have optimum glycogen
you need to consume CHO within the first 2h
CHO in the mouth?
just a bit of Carbohydrate solution in the mouth increase your performance
when should you take protien?
right after the resistance exercise increase the strength improvement
leucin activates what?
TORC1 even without insulin
what does exercise prevent?
- heart disease
something that is intended to enhance physical performance, strength, stamina, or recovery
examples of ergonogenic
- anabolic/androgenic steriods
- creatine phosphate
- sodium bicarbonate
AAS mechanism (anabolic/androgenic steriods)
- activate muscle protien synthesis
- much greater effect on protein
AAS produces connective tissue to?
it makes the the tendons rupture faster and earlier
GH(growth hormone) increases collagen synthesis and protects connective tissue
beetroot juice increases economy
AMPK and PPAR activation increases the capacity for fat oxidation
people who strive inwardly to be competent and self-determining in their quest to master the task at hand
sources of motivation/ reinforcment