exb 10 midterm 2

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exb 10 midterm 2
2012-03-04 19:24:32
exb10 midterm

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  1. afferent
    body reaction
  2. efferent
    back scale of the brain where signals are sent through the spinal cord
  3. muscle strand
    • multi nucli
    • myofbrillls- reason muscles can contract.
  4. myosin
    pull on actin to produce power
  5. actin
    protien in a muscle tissue cell
  6. lessthan optimal lenght
    • fewer cross-bridge interaction= reduced ension development.
    • the actins are over eachother and the myosin are not able to connect all of the fibers to it
  7. optimal length
    • maximal cross-bridge interattion= maximal tension decelopment .
    • the actins are spread out enough so te myosins are attached and are able to send out more strength.
  8. skeletal muslce
    single muscle (multi nucli)
  9. concentric
    • upward movement. it tightens/shortens your muscle.
    • a positive movement
  10. static or lsometric
    the muscle stays the same way right in the middle it has no movement.
  11. eccentric
    • very important and dangerous.
    • negative movement.
    • going downward the muscle expands.
  12. where in your muscle is the strongest
    the middle of the muscle thats where all the force is located at.
  13. biceps muscles
    straight (longitudinal)
  14. vastus muscle
    curved, twisted (pennate)
  15. torque
    is aa leveraged focre, that creates rotation around an axis
  16. the three parts that connect to a twitch type
    spinal cord, peripheral nerve, and skeletal muscle
  17. slow twitch type 1 SO
    • slow oxidative fibers
    • endurance last longer
    • stable
  18. fast-twitch type 2a fog
    • fast oxidative glycolytic fibers
    • higher performance last longer
    • become stable
  19. fast-twitch type 2b fg
    • fast glycolytic fibers
    • short and fast
  20. can you change fiber?
    sorta you can have a metabolic change which wont be like to acur.
  21. primum, non nocere
    first, do not harm
  22. myocardial infraction
    heart attack, lack of blood flow
  23. threshold
    • minimum stimulus
    • the level that must be reached for an effect to be produced
    • the start of the exercise learning
  24. overload
    resistance, working harder pushing you self after you reached one goal.
  25. adaptation
    the results you see after a constant overload
  26. progression
    • progressive resistance
    • after adapting then go beyond to adapt at a higher tencidy
  27. retrogression
    • over trainging
    • start to loose muscle and not able to perfrom as you once did
  28. regression
    loosing your muscle and not working on it just letting it go
  29. specificity
    • diff gainings from diff traingings
    • adaptation due to training are specific to the body part and the types of exerciseyou enhance`
  30. stress rotation
    • alternate in the trainings you do so you avoid injuries.
    • "rexiprocal tension"
  31. G.E.T
    • goal- run a 10k, play with the kids
    • enjoyment- outdoors
    • type (or mode)-run, bike, weights

    • frequency- exercise sessions per week
    • intensity- often as a % of maximum
    • time- duration, minutes or hours
  32. strength
    the ability to overcome inertia
  33. 1. force that is produced by the muscle- sarcomeres in parallel
    • 2. neural activation- signal from brain to muscle
    • 3. stiffness of the cconnective tissue- greater stiffness= greater transmission of force
  34. energetics
    • 1. atp
    • 2 glycoplytic- they start to produce atp
    • 3. oxidative- with the midochondria start to porduce ATP
  35. power
    • rate of force development
    • 1.type of motor protein- fast or slow.. how quick the pull on the actin
    • 2. neural activation- message from the brain
    • 3. pennation angle of the fibers- angle muscle=force
    • 4 sacomeres in series
    • 5. stiffness of the connective tissue
  36. endurance
    • the ablility to maintain force/power/speed
    • 1. VO2MAX-
    • maxmimum capacity for aerobic energy production
    • 2. lactate threshold- maximum sustained velocity /power
    • 3.movement economy- energy consumed to maintain a specific velocity/power
  37. does muscle overcome inertia?
    yes it does
  38. the roles of muscles
    • motor- muscle performs a shortening contraction to overcome inertia.
    • brakes- muscle performs a lengthening contraction to reduce inertia
    • struts- musce contracts isometrically to transmit forces
    • spring- muscle use high power burst contraction to maintian intertia(cheta)
  39. role of stiffness in power
    higher passive stiffnes the higher you jump and sprint performance
  40. how does traing performance increase?
    increases with plyometric stiffness (jumo training)
  41. consequences of stiffness?
    your more vonurable to injuries
  42. what plays a big rol in determining power and endurance but comes at the expense of injuries
    connective tissue
  43. what are the three variable that endurance it dependent on (not force/power/velocity)
    • VO2max
    • 1. maximum capacity for aerobic exercise
    • 2. oxygen delivery
    • 3. oxegen utilization
    • lactte threshold
    • 1. maximum sustained velocity/power
    • movement economy
    • 1. energy consumed to maintain a specific velocity/ power
  44. overload pricnple
    strength gain occur as a result of systematic and progressive exercise of suffient frequency, intensity,and duration to cause adaptation

    inscrease in aerobic capacity occur as a result of systematic and progressive execrise of sufficeient frequency, intensity, and duration to cause adaptation
  45. how long does it take to increase in strenght
    it beggings rapidly in the beggining of the first 6-8 week or intense workouts (during the 2nd learing stage)
  46. load causes hypertrophy
    this means that high loads are required in order to build up muscle mass.
  47. force (load) v. velocity in muslce
    the more you have enduracne the less muscle you have. more muscle you have less endurance you end up with
  48. strenght training for muscle
    • perfom repititions properly
    • 1. limt leverage
    • 2. limit momentum
    • 3. contant muscular tension

    • linear progression
    • 1. use range or target rules
    • 2. when ou reach the target increase weight
  49. target rule
    the # of repetitions (8) that you attempt to complete in a set
  50. range rule
    a group of targets that can be achieved prior to increasing the wieght (6-8)
  51. why do you have to periodize
    • 1. our goal is to perform well for one competition- then you periodize.
    • 2. when you do high intensity training all the time you are injurying your self and do not allow your sellf(the body) to recover from your connective tissue.the low intesity workouts allow you slef to be able to recover.
    • 3. mental progress- athletes tend to lower their self estiem because they see no result because the body only increases .01% per week.
  52. physiological respone to ResEx
    • after the exercise your body tends to break down protien synthesis and protien breakdown.
    • both of these things are different.
    • an acute resistence exercise increases both protien synthesis and degradation (breakdown).
  53. whats the relationship between synthesus and breakdown?
    at the third hour both portien and correlate.
  54. what does resistance exercis do to protien balance? does it net growth or loss?
    the resistance excersice decreases the negative protein balance seen during a fast, but does not shift it to the positive balance.
  55. what does happens when you take in amino aids
    it tends to increase protein synthesis and decrease degreadation resulting in a positive protien balance
  56. what is mTORC1?
    • 1. a protein kinase (protein that decorates other proteins with phosphate groups)- controls growth (increase in cell mass) and proliferation (increase in cell number) by modulating mRNA translation through phosphorylation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factors
    • 2.involved in cell size regulationand metobolism- protien synthesis, protein degradation
    • 3. activated by amino acids (specifically leucine)
  57. what is required in oreder to increasse protien synthesis
    mTORC1 is required.
  58. 2 glasses of milk =
    1 mTORC1
  59. what prevents muscle hypertrophy
    the mtorc1 inhabitor rapamycin
  60. what is the truth about building muscle
    • trying to reach faliure will increase you from gaining more muscle..
    • after resex theres an increase of protein synthesis and degradation that result good when we are in the fed ed which means we are building muscle
    • due to mTORC1 muscle protien and mass are increased
  61. what is VO2max
    the oint in which oxygen intake does not continue to increase despite an increase in exercise intensity
  62. what is one main thing that is the key to perform great
    getting delivery of oxygen, if the heart is bigger then you are able to pump more oxygen in your system, thus your able to increase speed and perform better
  63. mechanism of mitochondrial biogensis(more mitochondria) this is muscle for the long run
    • exercise uses ATP and generates AMP this activates AMP kinase(the more you exercise the more you activate AMPK)
    • muscle contraion increases calcium in th emuscle and this activates calcium/clamodulin kinase.
    • both AMPK and CaMK increase PGC-1a (activates)
  64. what activate CaMK
    long and slow idistance
  65. what activates AMPK
    high intensity intervals
  66. spot reduction
    this does not occur
  67. what does 1mile of walking or running expend in calories
    100 calories
  68. hour many calories are there in a pound
    3,500 cal
  69. 1mile =100
    • 1lbs=3,500
    • multiply how many calories you burn a day the days in which it last then divide by 3,500 and see how much wieght you lost
  70. what does amino acids do to the body
    it activates mTORC1 and increases strength adaptations
  71. how much fluid should we be taking in before our workouts and how long before?
    how much should you be drinking during your exercise
    • .4-.6 of fluid 2-3 hours before
    • .6-1,2 liters to replace all the fluid you lost
  72. american college of sports medicine
    advocate drinking ad libitum to increase muscle
  73. effect of glycogen content on exercise performance
    can directly affect the content of glycogen in muscle and increasing the content of glycogen in the muscle improves endurance
  74. CHO carbohydrate
    • inreasing this before a race makes your endurance last longer in relation to weight gain
    • helps on endurance
  75. how much is glycogen is too much??
    • each g of glycogen brings- 3g of water
    • therefore he put on 180g/kg muscle
    • assuming muscle was 45% of his body then he has 29.25kg
    • he felt very heavy
  76. what do you need to get in order to have optimum glycogen
    you need to consume CHO within the first 2h
  77. CHO in the mouth?
    just a bit of Carbohydrate solution in the mouth increase your performance
  78. when should you take protien?
    right after the resistance exercise increase the strength improvement
  79. leucin activates what?
    TORC1 even without insulin
  80. what does exercise prevent?
    • heart disease
    • diabetes
    • cancer
    • obesity
    • osteoporsis
    • sacropenia
    • depression
  81. ergogenic aids
    something that is intended to enhance physical performance, strength, stamina, or recovery
  82. examples of ergonogenic
    • anabolic/androgenic steriods
    • growthhormones
    • creatine phosphate
    • stimulants
    • sodium bicarbonate
    • erythropoetib(EPO)
  83. AAS mechanism (anabolic/androgenic steriods)
    • activate muscle protien synthesis
    • much greater effect on protein
  84. AAS produces connective tissue to?
    it makes the the tendons rupture faster and earlier
  85. GH(growth hormone) increases collagen synthesis and protects connective tissue
    beetroot juice increases economy
  86. AMPK and PPAR activation increases the capacity for fat oxidation
  87. intrinsic motivation
    people who strive inwardly to be competent and self-determining in their quest to master the task at hand
  88. extrinsic motivation
    sources of motivation/ reinforcment