A&P 1 Lab

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sjmjr
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139535
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A&P 1 Lab
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2012-03-04 16:48:37
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A&P Lab quiz 3/6/12
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  1. What must the fluid surrounding the cells in the body maintain for the cells to function properly?
    a specific concentration of electrolytes
  2. Define Colloid osmotic pressure -
    the osmotic effect due to the pressence of protein
  3. define hydrostatic pressure-
    The pressure exibited by fluid pressing on a wall
  4. how do electrolytes enter the body
    food and drink
  5. how do electrolytes leave the body? (3)
    • urine
    • skin
    • feces
  6. give an important function of electrolytes?
    controlling fluid movement between fluid components
  7. is the movement of fluid across cell membranes different or similar to the movement between the intersitial fluid in the plasma
    different
  8. how do electrolytes move across the cell membrane (2)
    • ion channels
    • ion pumps
  9. what do ion pumps do
    move ions against thier concentration gradiant
  10. what do channels for Na+ allow
    diffusion of Na+ across cell membranes slowly
  11. What do channels for K+ allow?
    diffusion of K+ across cell membrane quickly
  12. Describe the permeability of the cell membrane to water
    it is freely permeable to water
  13. describe the movement of water across the cell membrane?
    osmosis
  14. when there is a higher concentration of solute in the interstitial fluid which way will water move?
    from the inside to the outside
  15. what does Na+ exert?
    osmotic pressure
  16. Is the movement between the interstitial fluid compartment and plasma the same or different from the fluid movement between the interstitial fluid compartment and the intracellular compartment?
    different
  17. what moves easily through gaps between endothelial cells that make up capillary walls (3)
    • ions
    • small solutes
    • H2O
  18. why dont proteins easily leave capillaries?
    they are too big
  19. what does protein plasma exert
    colloid osmotic pressure/oncotic pressure
  20. Discribe the movemnt of water that results from the osmotic pressure caused by the protein in the plasma
    water moves from interstitial fluid to the plasma
  21. describe the movement of fluid that results from hydrostatic pressure
    From plasma to interstitial fluid
  22. which pressure is stronger at the artteiriole end of a capillary
    hydrostatic pressure
  23. in hydrostatic pressure at the arteriole end of a capillary which direction is fluid forced
    out into interstitial fluid space
  24. which pressure is the greatest at the venous end of a capillary
    osmotic
  25. In which direction does fluid move at the venous end
    into plasma
  26. if the concentration of Na+ in the plasma were increased what would happen to the concentration of Na+ in the interstitial fluid
    increases
  27. what would follow Na+ into the interstitial fluid
    water
  28. what effect would an increase in Na+ concentration have on the cells bathed by the interstitial fluid
    cells shrink
  29. define edema
    an accumulation of fluid in the interstitial space
  30. list the four causes of edema
    • colloid osmotic pressure
    • increased capillary hydrostatic pressure
    • increased capillary permeability
    • lymphatic obstruction
  31. what will happen to colloid pressure if plasma protien decreases
    it decreases
  32. in which direction will water move as a result of a decrease in colloid osmotic pressure
    out of blood vessels and into the interstitial compartnent
  33. what will happen to the blood pressure as water moves from the plasma into the interstitial fluid compartment
    BP decreases
  34. what pressure increases as a result of an increase in blood pressure
    hydrostatic pressure
  35. describe the movement of fluid that results from an increase in the hydrostatic pressure
    out of blood vessels and into interstitial compartment
  36. what are two causes of local edema
    • injury
    • inflammation
  37. describe the movement of protein that results from an increase in capillary permeability
    they move into the interstitial compartment
  38. what does the movement of protein create and how does this affect the movement of a fluid
    osmotic effect
  39. what does obstruction of lymphatic capillaries have on the return of interstitial fluid to venous capillaries
    it hinders it
  40. where does interstitial fluid get trapped?
    in the interstitisal compartment
  41. which ion has the most significant osmotic effect on the extracellular fluid
    sodium
  42. define hypernatremia
    an excess of sodium in the extracellular fluid greater than 145 mEq/L
  43. what effect would an increase in Na+ concentration have on cells bathed by the interstitial fluid
    they shrink
  44. define hyponatremia
    a concentration of sodium in the extracellular fluid less than 136 mEq/L
  45. what effect would a decrease in Na+ concentration have on cells bathed by the interstitial fluid
    they swell
  46. what are the 2 major roles of Na+
    • nerve impulse conduction and muscle contraction
    • regulation of water movement
  47. if Na+ levels change, what also changes
    fluid levels in other compartments
  48. what are the 2 reasons for an increase in plasma Na+
    • Too much water is lost from plasma without corresponding loss of Na+
    • Too much Na+ is added to the plasma without adding water
  49. would neurons shrink or swell as a result of hypernatremia
    shrink
  50. how does hypernatremia effect thirst
    thirst increases
  51. how does hypernatremia effect urine output
    decreases
  52. what do the kidneys do with respect to Na+ concentration in the plasma
    they fine tune the concentration of Na+ in the plasma
  53. define aldosterone
    hormone secreted by the adrenal gland which promotes sodium reabsorbtion and potassium secretion by the kidneys
  54. what will happen if ADH is present
    water will follow Na+ from the filtrate into the plasma
  55. what effect will water reabsorbtion have on blood pressure
    BP increases
  56. besides Na+ what does aldosterone have an effect on
    K+
  57. Where does K+ end up in the presence of aldosterone
    in the filtrate
  58. what can some diuretics cause
    K+ deficiancy
  59. define hypokalemia
    below normal level of potassium in the extracellular fluid less than 3.5 mEq/L
  60. why is hypokalemia clinically significant
    there is no mechanism to compensate for renal losses of K+
  61. where is most K+ found
    inside cells
  62. how does K+ end up in the extracellular fluid (3)
    • dietary K+
    • because cell membrane is more permeable to K+ than Na+
    • more K+ leak out of cells
  63. what is the role of K+
    • osmosis
    • membrane potential
    • acid/base balance
  64. what is K+ responsible for
    intracellular fluid volume through osmosis
  65. what cherge will result as a result of K+ leakage
    negative
  66. what is calcium hemeostasis crucial to
    normal body function
  67. define hypercalcemia
    an excess of calcium in the extracellular fluid greater than 11mg/dL
  68. what can happen if Ca2+ levels get too high
    heart dysrhythmia
  69. define hypocalcemia
    a concentration of calcium in the extracellular fluid less than 9mg/dL
  70. what will occur if Ca2+ levels get too low
    muscle spasm
  71. what three things work together to ensure that the pH of the body fluids remains within a specific narrow limit
    • chemical buffers
    • the respitory system
    • urinary system
  72. define acid
    chemical substance that donate hydrogen ion (H+)
  73. define base
    chemical substance that accepts hydrogen ion
  74. how is acidity basicity measured
    units of pH
  75. where do some of the acids and bases in our bodies come from
    foods we eat
  76. where do other acids come from
    metabolism
  77. which pH is more acidic 4 or 8
    pH 4
  78. which has a greater concentration of H+, 7 or 8
    pH 7
  79. changing the pH by one pH unit changes the H+ concentration by a factor of
    10
  80. the pH of arterial bolld is
    7.35 - 7.45
  81. the pH of venous blood
    7.35
  82. the pH of interstitial fluid
    7.0 - 7.4
  83. pH of intercellular fluid
    7.0
  84. the most acidic fluid compartment is the
    intercellular fluid
  85. pH of the stomach is
    2.0
  86. pH of the small intestine is
    8.0
  87. the pH of urine ranges from
    4.8 - 7.5
  88. when the body is in acid/base homeostasis the pH of arterial blood is
    7.35 - 7.45
  89. what is the only strong acid in the body
    hydochloric acid
  90. what do bases do
    take up H+
  91. what are base solutions also called
    alkaline
  92. what is the pH of a neutral solution
    7.0
  93. describe the H+ and OH- concentration for a solution with a pH of 3.0
    H+ is greater than OH-
  94. describe the H+ and OH- concentration for a solution with a pH of 7.0
    H+ is equal to OH-
  95. describe the H+ and OH- concentration for a solution with a pH of 10
    H+ is less than OH-
  96. what can some electrolytes in the body act as
    weak acids and bases
  97. what 3 ways does the body have to maintain normal pH range
    • chemical buffer systems
    • respitory controls
    • renal mechanisms
  98. what is the purpose of a buffer
    help the body control pH
  99. name the 3 important buffer systems
    • H2CO3-
    • H2PO4- / HPO42 -
    • Protein buffers
  100. describe a reversible reaction
    the reaction can go forward or backward
  101. draw arrows that indiciate reversible reaction
    • -------->
    • <-------
  102. describe a reaction that is in dynamic equalibrium
    HCO-3 and H+ constantly go back and forth to form H2CO3 and back agian
  103. what will happen if more H2CO3 is added
    is this a shift to the right or the left
    • the excess H+ will be taken up
    • left
  104. as H+ is taken away what gets generated by the buffer system
    is this a shift to the right or left
    • more H+
    • right
  105. what is generated as a result of cell metabolism
    CO2
  106. what happens when we breathe more quickly and deeply
    more Co2 leaves the body
  107. what happens when we breathe more shallowly and slowly
    less Co2 leaves the body
  108. if the rate of respiration decreases or the exchange of gases in the lungs is impaired the CO2 in the lungs will
    CO2 increases
  109. describe what will happen if respiration decreases
    equilibrium shifts to the right H+ increases
  110. as the respiration decreases what happens to the pH of the plasma
    it decreases
  111. describe what will happen if the respiration rate increses
    CO2 decreases
  112. as the respiration increases what happens to the pH of the plasma
    it increases
  113. describe what will happen to HCO3- if pH is too high
    It is filtered at the glomerulus and is elimenated in urine
  114. as more HCO3- is elimenated from the body what happens to the pH of the plasma
    it decreases
  115. what are the 3 major ways that the kidneys regulate the pH of the body fluids
    • reabsorbtion of HCO3-
    • generation of HCO3- by kidney tubule cells
    • secretion of H+

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