Biology Test #3

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slickkkp
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139536
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Biology Test #3
Updated:
2012-03-04 14:16:00
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BioTest3
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These are the notes for my BioTest3
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  1. Heritable change in the genetic code
    Mutation
  2. TRUE or FALSE: Mutations are permanent and can be passed on when the cell divides.
    TRUE
  3. What are necessary for the continuance of life because they're the bases of natural selection and evolution?
    Mutations
  4. How many effects are there for MUTATIONS?
    3
  5. 1. Harmful
    2. Beneficial
    3. Neutal

    Are effects of what?
    Mutations
  6. Affects just ONE base pair, changing ONE nucleotide
    Point Mutation
  7. How many types of Point Mutations are there?
    3
  8. What are the three types of Point Mutation?
    • 1. Substitution
    • 2. Addition
    • 3. Deletion
  9. Same number of bases in gene but nucleotide is SUBSTITUTED
    Substitution -- Point Mutation
  10. New nucleotide is added in
    Addition -- Point Mutation
  11. Nucleotide is taken away
    Deletion -- Point Mutation
  12. Amino acid sequence remains UNCHANGED; no affect in protein
    Silent Mutation
  13. TRUE or FALSE: One can't have a silent mutation because genetic code is degenerate.
    FALSE. One CAN have a silent mutation because genetic code is degenerate.
  14. Occurs when you have a Point Mutation, changes ONE amino acid BUT all other amino acids in protein will be normal
    Missense Mutation
  15. Occurs when stop codon is seen
    Nonsense Mutation
  16. TRUE or FALSE: Missense mutations result in short protein which are usually NONfunctional.
    TRUE
  17. Different amino acid sequence. All downstream amino acids are changed after mutation SHIFT.
    Frameshift Mutation
  18. TRUE or FALSE: Time and amplitude determine the severity and heritability of mutation.
    FALSE. Time and LOCATION determine the severity and heritability of mutation.
  19. Form gametes. (Sex determing cells; egg/sperm)
    Germ-line cell
  20. TRUE or FALSE: Most of a person's gametes will carry on in mutation.
    FALSE. HALF of a person's gametes will carry on in mutation.
  21. Can germ-line cells pass on to off-spring?
    Yes.
  22. Normal sperm/egg and embryo forms; any cell that isn't a germ-line cell is a ______ cell
    Somatic
  23. TRUE of FALSE: If mutation occurs only a small part of organism is affected; a few cells.
    TRUE.
  24. Somatic cell mutations can occur in ____ and adults.
    Children.
  25. What is an example of a somatic cell mutation?
    Skin cancer.
  26. When some cells have mutation and others don't the person is known as a ____
    Mosaic.
  27. Random mutation
    Spontaneous
  28. Mutation caused by chemical or physical agent
    Induced
  29. Any chemical or physical agent that causes a mutation.
    Mutagen
  30. What is an example of a chemical mutation causing agent?
    Cigarette smoke
  31. What is an example of a physical mutation causing agent?
    Sun exposure (UV light)
  32. Uncontrolled cell division
    Cancer
  33. Any agent that causes cancer
    Carcinogen
  34. Not every _____ is a carcinogen
    Mutagen
  35. Not every mutation causes ____
    Cancer.
  36. Overgrowth of ells that has NO purpose
    Tumor
  37. NONcancerous but overgrowth of cells
    Benign
  38. There are ___ types of cancerous cells.
    Three
  39. What are the three types of cancerous cells?
    • 1. Malignant
    • 2. Invasive
    • 3. Metastatic
  40. Cells lost ability to stop reproducing
    Malignant
  41. Cancer cells that can invade healthy tissues
    Invasive
  42. Cancer cells that can migrate to other parts of the body
    Metastatic
  43. Contain genetic material made of DNA and proteins; highly condensed (tightly pulled)
    Chromosomes
  44. Same as CHROMOSOME but uncondensed
    Chromatin
  45. What are located on the chromosomes?
    Genes
  46. A single, linear structure is a _____ chromosome
    Eukaryotic
  47. TRUE or FALSE: Humans have 46 pairs of chromosomes with a total of 92 chromosomes.
    FALSE: Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes with a total of 46 chromosomes.
  48. How many chromosomes are somatic?
    1-22
  49. How many chromosomes are sex determining?
    1; the last chromosome -- #23
  50. Somatic cells with two sets
    Diploid; abbreviated 2N
  51. Chromosomes received from parents in a set; two sets of chromosomes
    Homologues
  52. Cells that have 1 set of chromosomes; gametes
    Haploid; abbreviated 1N
  53. TRUE or FALSE: Haploids prevents doubling of chromosomes leaving people as 2N.
    TRUE.
  54. The ORIGINAL cell that is about to divide
    Mother cell
  55. When the mother cell is divided it forms two _____ daughter cells
    Daughter
  56. Mitotic cell division involves two mechanisms:
    • 1. Mitosis
    • 2. Cytokinesis
  57. Nuclear division (nucleus is divided) so each daughter cell can get full set of chromosomes
    Mitosis
  58. TRUE or FALSE: Mitosis is only common in asexual organisms.
    FALSE: Mitosis is common in asexual AND multicellular organisms.
  59. Whole time of cells life after mitosis
    Interface
  60. TRUE or FALSE: Normal cells spend majority of their time in interface
    TRUE
  61. What are the three sub-phases of interface?
    • 1. G1
    • 2. S
    • 3. G2
  62. What does the G stand for?
    Gap
  63. 46 chromosomes are copied and DNA is synthesized
    S-phase (Synthesis)
  64. Cell is getting ready to divide; produced proteins and structures necessary for cell division
    G2
  65. Nuclear division, preparing to divide cell
    Mitosis
  66. Phase that includes mitosis and cytokinesis
    M-Phase
  67. DNA replicated using polymerase and Okazaki fragments; now have 2 copies of chromosomes
    S-Phase
  68. Two chromosomes (copied) linked together by centromere
    Sister chromatid
  69. Protein located usually in the center of chromosomes where kinetochore will attach
    Centromere
  70. Protein involved in cell division that attaches at the centromere
    Kinetochore
  71. Does the "work" in cell/nuclear division, pulls cells apart
    Mitotic Spindle Apparatus
  72. Two sets of mitotic spindle apparatus; one at top and one at bottom
    Centrosomes
  73. Proteins involved in cell shape and structure
    Spindle mictrotubules
  74. There are three types of Spindle Microtubules
    • 1. Astral
    • 2. Polar
    • 3. Kinetochore
  75. Anchor spindle apparatsus to cell (in place) holding centrosomes in their position
    Astral
  76. Go towards middle of cell to seperate poles
    Polar
  77. They come up and attach to centromere on sister chromatid from bottom (connected to bottom sister chromatd) to top (connected to top sister chromatid)
    Kinetochore
  78. Chromosomes have been replicated; already passed S-Phase
    Interphase

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