Biology Test #3
Card Set Information
Biology Test #3
These are the notes for my BioTest3
Heritable change in the genetic code
TRUE or FALSE: Mutations are permanent and can be passed on when the cell divides.
What are necessary for the continuance of life because they're the bases of natural selection and evolution?
How many effects are there for MUTATIONS?
Are effects of what?
Affects just ONE base pair, changing ONE nucleotide
How many types of Point Mutations are there?
What are the three types of Point Mutation?
Same number of bases in gene but nucleotide is SUBSTITUTED
Substitution -- Point Mutation
New nucleotide is added in
Addition -- Point Mutation
Nucleotide is taken away
Deletion -- Point Mutation
Amino acid sequence remains UNCHANGED; no affect in protein
TRUE or FALSE: One can't have a silent mutation because genetic code is degenerate.
FALSE. One CAN have a silent mutation because genetic code is degenerate.
Occurs when you have a Point Mutation, changes ONE amino acid BUT all other amino acids in protein will be normal
Occurs when stop codon is seen
TRUE or FALSE: Missense mutations result in short protein which are usually NONfunctional.
Different amino acid sequence. All downstream amino acids are changed after mutation SHIFT.
TRUE or FALSE: Time and amplitude determine the severity and heritability of mutation.
FALSE. Time and LOCATION determine the severity and heritability of mutation.
Form gametes. (Sex determing cells; egg/sperm)
TRUE or FALSE: Most of a person's gametes will carry on in mutation.
FALSE. HALF of a person's gametes will carry on in mutation.
Can germ-line cells pass on to off-spring?
Normal sperm/egg and embryo forms; any cell that isn't a germ-line cell is a ______ cell
TRUE of FALSE: If mutation occurs only a small part of organism is affected; a few cells.
Somatic cell mutations can occur in ____ and adults.
What is an example of a somatic cell mutation?
When some cells have mutation and others don't the person is known as a ____
Mutation caused by chemical or physical agent
Any chemical or physical agent that causes a mutation.
What is an example of a chemical mutation causing agent?
What is an example of a physical mutation causing agent?
Sun exposure (UV light)
Uncontrolled cell division
Any agent that causes cancer
Not every _____ is a carcinogen
Not every mutation causes ____
Overgrowth of ells that has NO purpose
NONcancerous but overgrowth of cells
There are ___ types of cancerous cells.
What are the three types of cancerous cells?
Cells lost ability to stop reproducing
Cancer cells that can invade healthy tissues
Cancer cells that can migrate to other parts of the body
Contain genetic material made of DNA and proteins; highly condensed (tightly pulled)
Same as CHROMOSOME but uncondensed
What are located on the chromosomes?
A single, linear structure is a _____ chromosome
TRUE or FALSE: Humans have 46 pairs of chromosomes with a total of 92 chromosomes.
FALSE: Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes with a total of 46 chromosomes.
How many chromosomes are somatic?
How many chromosomes are sex determining?
1; the last chromosome -- #23
Somatic cells with two sets
Diploid; abbreviated 2N
Chromosomes received from parents in a set; two sets of chromosomes
Cells that have 1 set of chromosomes; gametes
Haploid; abbreviated 1N
TRUE or FALSE: Haploids prevents doubling of chromosomes leaving people as 2N.
The ORIGINAL cell that is about to divide
When the mother cell is divided it forms two _____ daughter cells
Mitotic cell division involves two mechanisms:
Nuclear division (nucleus is divided) so each daughter cell can get full set of chromosomes
TRUE or FALSE: Mitosis is only common in asexual organisms.
FALSE: Mitosis is common in asexual AND multicellular organisms.
Whole time of cells life after mitosis
TRUE or FALSE: Normal cells spend majority of their time in interface
What are the three sub-phases of interface?
What does the G stand for?
46 chromosomes are copied and DNA is synthesized
Cell is getting ready to divide; produced proteins and structures necessary for cell division
Nuclear division, preparing to divide cell
Phase that includes mitosis and cytokinesis
DNA replicated using polymerase and Okazaki fragments; now have 2 copies of chromosomes
Two chromosomes (copied) linked together by centromere
Protein located usually in the center of chromosomes where kinetochore will attach
Protein involved in cell division that attaches at the centromere
Does the "work" in cell/nuclear division, pulls cells apart
Mitotic Spindle Apparatus
Two sets of mitotic spindle apparatus; one at top and one at bottom
Proteins involved in cell shape and structure
There are three types of Spindle Microtubules
Anchor spindle apparatsus to cell (in place) holding centrosomes in their position
Go towards middle of cell to seperate poles
They come up and attach to centromere on sister chromatid from bottom (connected to bottom sister chromatd) to top (connected to top sister chromatid)
Chromosomes have been replicated; already passed S-Phase