Art midterm

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Art midterm
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Art Midterm
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  1. Idealism
    Figures on the Parthenon, according to Winckelman, express not only nature but "something beyond nature." Greeks apprehended "ideal forms." Only way to get to it is through imitation
  2. 1. ekphrasis
    Attempt to convey in rhetorical/literary terms the content of art. Use of language to convey something non-linguistic.
  3. cella
    Enclosed part of a temple where deity (Athena) stands
  4. stylobate
    Topmost step of temple's base, on which the columns are placed. The "floor" of the temple. CURVES
  5. Pediment
    Triangular section above the entablature, containing the tympanum with sculptures inside it.
  6. OK
  7. architrave
    lowermost band of entablature, resting on the columns
  8. triglyph
    Sections of frieze containing rectangular block with three vertical bands, alternating with the metopes on the frieeze.
  9. metope
    • Rectangular space between the triglyphs, above the architrave, with sculptural reliefs inside - eg. depicting the battle between Centaurs & Lapiths
    • 92 reliefs of individual scenes
  10. frieze
    • central part of the entablature, with low-relief marble sculptures
  11. drum
    cylindrical blocks of stone used to construct shaft of column
  12. flute
    channel/groove on shaft of column
  13. capital
    topmost part of column, supporting square abacus and
  14. Doric column
    Has no base. Heavy fluted shaft, supporting an ovolo moulding beneath a square abacus
  15. Ionic column
    Fluted column with moulded base. More elaborate capital, with curvy volutes
  16. Corinthian column
    Has a base, slender fluted column and an elaborate in-carved capital with acanthus leaves and scrolls.
  17. Inner Frieze of Parthenon
    Low-relief sculpture above the inner colonnade, that runs around the exterior wall of the cella, containing one long, continuous subject - apparently the Panathaneic festival. Very high and poorly lit.
  18. low-relief
    Inner layer frieze showing Pan-Athenaic procession, the view of which is blocked by the columns. Defined as a relief with less than 1/2 projecting. Borders the wall of the cella.
  19. High relief
    • More than 1/2 of depth projected. Placed outside in two places:
    • 1) On the metopes outside, showing battles between humans/monsters
    • 2) On the East and West Pediments
  20. wet drapery
    Found on the East Pediment of Parthenon. Refers to diaphonously clinging drapery that exposes the contours of the body.
  21. GOTHIC
    • - Pointed arches
    • - Ribbed Vaults
    • - Flying buttresses
    • - Skeletal structure
    • - Stress on natural light
    • - Relationality to other churches (buildings reference each other)
    • - Modernity (notion of Gothic as modernitas because of lack of prototype).
    • - Tem invented during Renaissance and back-applied
  22. Amiens Cathedral
    13th century Catholic church, 1220-1270.
  23. post and lintel
    structure with vertical beams (posts) supporting horizontal beams (lintel)
  24. Roman arch
    semicircular arch that replaced post-and-lintel, can bear more weight
  25. barrel vault
    stack of arches placed side-by-side
  26. Groin vault
    Intersection of barrel vaults
  27. Old St. Peter's
    Has central aisle demarcated by colonnade, longitudinal structure, and "Oriented" East.
  28. lunette
    arched recess above door; if huge and prominent, central door, a tympanum.
  29. Gothic Floorplan
    Narthex
    Nave
    Transept
    Apse
    Crossing
    Radiating Chapels
    Ambulatory
    Aisles
  30. Nave
    longitudinal arm of church, from entrance/narthex to chancel. Flanked by the smaller aisles.
  31. clerestory
    upper portion of interior above adjacent rooftops and admitting daylight through windows
  32. transept
    transverse section, transecting the nave at crossing, at right angle, at entrance to the choir
  33. aisle
    passageway to either side of the nave, separated from it by colonnade
  34. ambulatory
    aisle running around east end of church, behind sanctuary, allowing you to visit side chapels
  35. ribbing
    Dividing the surface into panels by molding
  36. ribbed vault
    Resembles a groin vault, but the surface is divided into webs by a framework of angled, diagonal arched ribs. Ornamental work creating a complex, angled surface.
  37. arcade
    • succession of arches supported by columns or piers
  38. blind arcade
    • decorative arcade on wall surface, with no actual openings
  39. tympanum
    • -In the Parthenon, triangular area inside pediment with sculptural reliefs
    • -In Amiens cathedral, the arched recess above the door. The middle portal shows the last Judgment, with Christ in the middle, Mary on the right and St. John the Baptist on the left. The damned are ushered by the devils into the mouth of hell. Above them angels with flaming sword. The saved are welcomed into heaven.
  40. trumeau
    column supporting tympanum of doorway at its center
  41. triforium
    • shallow arched gallery at the side of the nave, often having a blind arcade or an opening in a gallery.
  42. Gothic symbolism.
    • Intense illumination focused on the altar. Pillar lines meet at ribbed vaulting. Pillars as trees. Moving through church as pilgrimage.
    • Body no longer a crucial center of meaning
  43. Renaissance
    Initially centered in Florence and Naples, a reaction against medieval scholasticism, which emphasized specialized training in limited sphere (theology, logic, medicine, natural sciences). Birth of "humanism" interested in broader citizenry: rhetoric, poetry, history, moral philosophy. New interest in intellect and knowledge as empirically produced through engagement with world around you.
  44. atmospheric/aerial perspective
    Used by Alberti, Da Vinci. Farther objects become less visually distinct, with less contrast, detail, and saturation. Colors shift towards background color.
  45. chiaroscuro
    Use of deep variations and subtle gradations of light and shade, pioneered by Da Vinci, who had much more tonal contrast than Raphael
  46. Three components of painting according to Alberti
    • 1) Outline (disegno): set up a veil btw. you and object, helping you transform 3d object into 2d.
    • 2) Composition: arrangement of bodies in space, but mostly focused on istoria, action taking oplace in time, a scene, an event.
    • 3) Reception of light (color): balance of light/shadow, which modify the appearance of color. Setting things apart rather than medieval blocks of color that would flatten the figure.
  47. istoria
    • Action taking place in time: make every part of the body expressive. Have everyone face different direction. Has to appeal to the senses as well as the mind. Visual tension, articulation of event. Hinges on depiction/placement of bodies: affective states (rather than Parthenon's univesal values)
    • "the painter's greatest work". Istorias "take their themes from classical literature" and religious sources, "and gain emotional power by representing a number of people reacting to the central event portrayed".
    • "the istoria will move the soul of the beholder when each man painted there clearly shows the movement of his own soul: we weep with the weeping, laugh with the laughing, and grieve with the grieving. These movements of the soul are made known by movements of the body"
  48. disegno vs. colorito
    • diesgno: conception of painting in which line is primary. Eg: Michelangelo. Sketches before painting. More rationalized
    • color: more sensuous, material, emphasizing physical properties.
  49. disegno
    drawing: for Alberti, the essential factor in art, a "project undertaken by the mind" using reason and expressed in lines and angles
  50. Duhrer Grid
    • The grid is placed between the object and the artist. A similar grid is then drawn on a drawing surface. By using the grid the artist can achieve:
    • A clear, manageable guide to proportions.The image is partitioned into segments that can be perceived as they are, without associative disturbance.By altering either of the grids it is easy to make a transformation of scale, perspective or proportions.Useful when dealing with foreshortening or when accuracy of proportion is important to the layout.
  51. Vanishing Point
    Lines that are parallel will, in real life, seem to converge at a vanishing point.
  52. Orthogonal lines
    • Straight diagonal lines drawn to connect points around the edges of a picture to the vanishing point. Parallel lines receding into the distance help draw the viewer's eye into the depth of the picture. They converge on the horizon line (though in reality are parallel). Eg, center of Raphael's Marriage of the Virgin.
  53. foreshortening
    Distortion seen by the eye when an object or figure is viewed at a distance or at an unusual angle. Creates illusion of 3d space
  54. entasis
    bulging out of Parthenon columns in the middle, tapering ends
  55. Vetruvian Man
    Human body's proportions fit geometric regularity. Geometry of body seen as divine
  56. Linear Perspective
    • Mathematical system for creating the illusion of space and distance on a flat surface. Originated in Florence in the early 1400s. Leon Battista Alberti was first to write down rules of linear perspective for artists to follow.
    • An artist must first imagine the picture surface as an "open window" through which to see the painted world. Straight lines are then drawn on the canvas to represent the horizon and "visual rays" connecting the viewer's eye to a point in the distance: the horizon line, orthogonal lines, and vanishing point.
  57. facture
    the act, process of making something: Eg. Michelangelo interested in the creation of an artwork and its material production.
  58. contrapposto
    asymmetrical arrangement of the human figure, usually with weight on one leg, and hips and shoulders in different axes. Suggests organic movement and life within figure itself.
  59. paragone
    Debate from the Italian Renaissance in which one form of art (architecture, sculpture or painting) is championed as superior to all others. Leonardo da Vinci's treatise on painting, noting the difficulty of painting and supremacy of sight, while Michelangelo believed in sculpture
  60. 1. ignudo
    2. putti
    • 1. naked male figures painted as supports in the corner of the main narrative scenes in the center of the Sistine Chappel.
    • 2. winged cherubic infants
  61. fresco
    Rapid painting on wet plaster surface with watercolors. Unlike oil, can't be reworked easily. Tend to be lighter - hard to achieve tonal depth. Different facture: hard to conceal brush-strokes since it dries quickly.
  62. Northern Renaissance
    • 15th-C diffusion of humanism coinciding with Protestant reformation, centralization of power (monarchical nation-states, not Italian city-states) and an affluent middle class.
    • Special concern with color, detail. Had less access to classical models. Perfected use of oil-paint. Enamel-like surfaces, the layering of translucent glazes of color allowed light to pass through and be reflected by opaque underlayers, lending a greater sense of luminosity to the paintings.
  63. grisaille
    entirely monochrome painting, usually shades of gray. Simulates unpainted stone sculpture. Can be used as basis for engraving.
  64. impasto
    • thickly applied paint: controls play of light, adds expressiveness, and sculptural quality.
    • Rembrandt's layers of opaque painting obscures the thing being painting, emphasizing method over object. Much more secular production: material value of artwork becomes more prominent.
  65. hierarchy of genres:
    • 1) History Painting, especially Bible/Classical myth
    • 2) Portraiture
    • 3) Genre scenes (scenes of everyday life)
    • 4) Landscapes
    • 6) Still life

    Allegorizing, idealism at the top. Also hierarchy of mediums: finished, grandscale oil painting, sketch, print.
  66. 1) Engraving
    2) Etching
    3) Drypoint
    • 1) Engraving - Design carved on metal plate with a burin. Then covered in ink, which is absorbed by a paper. Very linear, takes a long time, little flexibility or variation of line. Can only vary spacing & thickness.
    • 2) Etching - Design made by an acid, not burin. Covered in wax, which is then carved off, and exposed to acid. which eats away carving. Then wax is removed and paper/ink added. Gives more control and variation.
    • 3) Drypoint engraving - Engraving made with the burr of a needle's incision, creating a picture with soft, velvety lines (not hard like previous two)
  67. Baroque
    • In sculpture: Exaggerated forms, visual drama, excess, theatricality. Dynamic movement and energy of human forms, spiralling around empty vortex or reaching out into space. Multiple views from a single form. Temporal narrative: Encounter, struggle, outcome all suggested. Narratives of transformation in Bernini.
    • Less emphasis on Michelangelo's monumentality.

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