Psychology Chapters 11 and 7

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  1. Development
    the sequence of age-related changes that occur as a person progresses from conception to death
  2. Zygote
    a one-celled organism formed by the union of a sperm and an egg
  3. Prenatal Period
    • from conception to birth, usually encompassing nine months of pregnancy
    • Three phases- germinal, embryonic, and the fetal stage
  4. Germinal Stage
    • first phase of prenatal development, encompassing the first two weeks after conception
    • placenta begins to form
  5. Placenta
    a structure that allows oxygen and nutrients to pass into the fetus from the mother's bloodstream and bodily wastes to pass out to the mother
  6. Embryonic Stage
    • second stage of prenatal development, lasting from two weeks until the end of the second month
    • great vulnerability because it is the time when basic physiological structures, vital organs, and bodily sytems begin to form
  7. Fetal Stage
    • third stage of prenatal development, lasting from two months through birth
    • first two months of this stage involve rapid bodily growth
  8. Age of Viability
    • the age at which a baby can survive in the event of a premature birth
    • around 22-26 weeks old
  9. Environmental Factors affecting Prenatal Development
    • Maternal Malnutrition
    • Maternal Drug Use
    • Maturnal Illness
  10. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
    • a collection of inborn problems associated with excessive alcohol use during pregnancy
    • ex- heart defects, irritability, hyperacivity, microcephaly (small head), and delayed mental and motor development
  11. Motor Development
    the progression of muscular coordination required for physical activities
  12. Cephalocaudal Trend
    the head-to-fooot direction of motor development
  13. Proximodistal Trend
    the center-outward direction of motor development
  14. Maturation
    development that reflects the gradual unfolding of one's genetic blueprint
  15. Developmental Norms
    indicate the typical (median) age at which individuals display various behaviors and abilities
  16. Temperament
    • characteristic mood, activity level, and emotional reactivity
    • inhibited temperament- more shy and wary of the unfamiliar
    • uninhibited temperament- less restrained and more approaching of the unfamiliar
  17. Longitudinal Design
    investigators observe one group of participants repeatedly over a period of time
  18. Cross-sectional design
    investigators compare groups of partipants of differing age at a single point in time
  19. Attachment
    the close, emotional bonds of affection that develop between infants and their caregivers
  20. Seperation Anxiety
    emotional distress seen in many infants when they are seperated from people with whom they have formed an attachment
  21. Harry Harlow
    • his experiment on attachment showed that when presented with a frightening stimulus, the monkeys clung to the cloth surrogate mother even if they had not been fed by it
    • his work undermined the behaviorists reinforcement (food) explanation of attachment
  22. John Bowly
    • argued that there must be a biological basis for attachment
    • infants are biologically programmed to emit behavior that triggers affectionate and protective responses from adults
    • adults are programmed by evolutionary forces to be captivated by the behavior and respond with warmth, love and protection
  23. Mary Ainsworth
    • found that infant-mother attachment vary in quality
    • Three categories- secure attachment, anxious-ambivalent attachment, and avoidant attachment
    • maternal behaviors seem to have considerable influence over the type of attachment that forms between infant and mother
  24. Secure Attachment
    infants play comfortably in mothers presence, become visibly upset when she leaves, and quickly calmed by her return
  25. Anxious-ambivalent Attachment (resistant attachment)
    anxious even when mother is present, protest excessively when she leaves, and not particularly comforted when she returns
  26. Avoidant Attachment
    infant seeks little contact with mother and are not distressed when she leaves
  27. Disorganized-disoriented Attachment
    are confused as to whether they should approach or avoid their mother, and are especially insecure
  28. Stage
    developmental period during which characteristic patterns of behavior are exhibited and certain capacities become established
  29. Stage Theories
    • assume that:
    • individuals must progress through specific stages in order, because stages build off previous stage
    • progress through stages is related to age
    • development marked by dramatic transitions in behavior
  30. Erik Erikson's theory of personality development
    • Eight stages:
    • 1) Trust vs Mistrust: depends on if the infants needs are met
    • 2) Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt: infant begins to take some responsibility and if constantly confronted by parents then develop the latter
    • 3) Initiative vs Guilt: overcontrolling parents will cause child to feel guilty with low self esteem, need to give room while teaching them to rspect the rules
    • 4)
Card Set:
Psychology Chapters 11 and 7
2012-03-05 00:39:17

Psychology terms
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