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Mnemonic to assess mental state and/or level of consciousness.
- A-Alert. Communicates clearly w/out any stimuli
- V-Verbal. Responds to verbal stimuli
- P-Painful. Responds to painful stimuli
- U-Unresponsive. Doesn't respond to verbal and painful stimuli
Normal ranges for breathing...
- Adult: 12-20 breaths/minute
- Child: 15-30 breaths/minute
- Infant: 25-50 breaths/minute
Normal pulse rates
- 60-100 bpm adults
- 70-100 bpm children
Sample History-Key questions in a patient history
- P-Pertinent Past Hx
- L-Last oral intake
- E-Events leading to injury or illness
Questions about Hx of Present Illness
- T-Time (duration)
Mnemonic used to remember possible physical findings identified during the head-to-toe survey
membrane that lines the interior surface of the eyelids and covers the anterior surface of the sclera
Grating or crackling sound or sensation caused by air beneath the skin or broken bone ends rubbing together
Detailed physical examination
Comprehensive head to toe assessment to identify secondary injuries; part of the focused (secondary) assessment.
artery in the foot that is palpable on the dorsal (top) portion of the foot.
Focused (secondary) Assessment
Part of the assessment devoted to identifying history and physical findings needed to treat the patient.
Focused physical exam
physical exam directed to the specific area of injury for patients with limited injuries or specific medical complaints; part of the focused (secondary) assessment.
Head- to- toe survey
rapid exam to identify signs and symptoms in unresponsive patients with a significant mechanism of injury.
History of present illness
Portion of history that clarifies the chief complaint through a series of questions (ie. OPQRST)
Initial (primary) Assessment
Part of the assessment devoted to identifying and treating life threatening conditions related to airway, breathing, circulation and mental status.
Reevaluation of the patient (repeat initial [primary] assessment, vital signs, focused [secondary] assessment, check of interventions) or reassessment.
first step in the scene size up phase of patient assessment. Ensures safety for providers, patients and bystanders.
Scene size up
first phase of patient assessment that includes scene safety, appropriate use of personal protective equipment, and determining the mechanism of injury or illness.
Air trapped beneath the skin as a result of trauma to the airways, lungs, esophagus, or skin.
- Blood pressure (120/80)
- pulse (60-100)
- Respiratory rate (15-20)
- Temperature (97.8-99.0 F or 36.5 C-37.2)
pressure of the blood when the ventricles contract (ventricular systole).
pressure of the blood when the ventricles relax (diastole).
- R-reactive to light
II. Initial Assessment
A. General Impression - [TAGS]
- 1. T = Trouble-Dangers/problems in area?
- 2. A = Age-Patient's age
- 3. G = Gender-Patient's gender
- 4. S = Situation-Environment/surroundings
B. Assess Mental Status - AVPU
C. Assess Your A, B, C's
- 1. A = Airway
- 2. B = Breathing
- 3. C = Circulation
- D. Determine Priority
- (see table for High Priority patients)