BIO Exam #2 ch 11.txt

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Anonymous
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BIO Exam #2 ch 11.txt
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2012-03-04 17:38:41
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human biology nervous system
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nervous system
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  1. Nervous System consists of:
    • Central Nervous System (brain and spinal cords)
    • Peripheral Nervous System (peripheral nerve)
  2. Nervous System Functions
    • 1. Sensory input (afferent)
    • Travel from sensory receptor to sensory neuron (in PNS)
    • Sent to CNS
    • 2. Integration
    • Interneuron in between brain and spinal cord
    • Receives information from sensory and passes message to motor output
    • 3. Motor output (efferent)
    • Motor neuron sends message to effector cells
    • Ex: effector cells: muscle cells (dropping pan when it�s hot)
    • Ex: cut an onion and you tear up
    • Back to PNS
  3. Nervous Tissue
    • Gray is where all cell bodies of neurons are
    • Most of brain is white (where dendrites and axon are)
    • Cell bodies are in ganglion
  4. Neuron Structure
    • Cell body: nucleus, organelles (in gray matter)
    • Dendrites: short extensions receive signals from other neurons in different directions
    • Axon Hillock
    • Axon: nerve impulse away from neuron
    • Axon terminals
  5. Myelin Sheath in CNS
    • Neuroglial cells protect neuron
    • Oligodendrocytes: few processes come out (arms wrap itself around axon - myelin)
    • If you destroy axon, oligodendrocytes die (do not regenerate)
  6. Myelin Sheath in PNS
    Schwann Cell: pushes nucleus to outside (bubble wrapping)
  7. Node of Ranvier
    Gaps in between myelin sheath
  8. Myelin: Saltatory Conduction
    • Nerve impulse jumps from node to node
    • Human nerve signals can travel faster than a NASCAR racer
  9. Resting Axon
    • Inside cell: lot of potassium (-)
    • Outside cell: lot of sodium (+)
    • Sodium-Potassium: uses active transport to move sodium OUT of the axon; potassium INTO the axon
    • 3 potassium on one side for 1 sodium on the other
    • If threshold reached: sodium gates open
    • Sodium rushes in and will make equilibrium polarity
    • 1. Depolarization
    • 2. Repolarization
    • 3. Reestablishment of resting potential
  10. Depolarization
    • Sodium moves into the axon
    • Sodium channels open
    • Sodium diffuses in
    • Membrane depolarizes
  11. Repolarization
    • Potassium moves out of the axon
    • Sodium channels close
    • Potassium channels open
    • Potassium diffuses out
    • Membrane repolarizes
  12. Resting potential
    • Sodium and potassium channels closed
    • Sodium-Potassium pump matches rate of leakage
  13. Reestablishment of the resting potential
    Potassium channels close
  14. Axon Terminal
    Impulse goes here
  15. Synapse
    • Neuron receives messages from axon terminals and dendrites
    • Where messages are going to be passed between2 neurons
    • Gap is called synaptic cleft
    • Receiving neuron
  16. Synaptic transmission
    • Presynaptic neuron
    • Postsynaptic neuron
  17. Neurotransmitters
    • Change electrical signal to chemical signal
    • Can leave through exocytosis
    • Vesicles filled with neurotransmitters
  18. Neurotransmission
    • Action potential reaching axon terminal
    • Calcium ? axon terminal
    • Released to synaptic cleft: go to receptor where they fit (post synaptic neuron)
    • Ion channel opens and ions flow into postsynaptic neuron causing action potential
  19. What can happen after Calcium binds to postsynaptic cleft?
    • Can cause excitatory (depolarize postsynaptic cell) or inhibitory (hyperpolarize: more negative inside)
    • Neurotransmitter released
    • Ion channels close
    • May be broken down in synapse
    • May reuptake and repackage
    • May reuptake and be destroyed
  20. What are neurotransmitters?
    • Transmits a signal from a neuron to its target
    • Acetylcholine for muscle contraction
  21. Meninges
    • 1. Dura mater (�tough mother�)
    • Hard to tear
    • 2. Arachnoid mater (looks like cob webs)
    • 3. Pia mater (thin, no consistency)
  22. Ventricular System and Central Canal
    • Holes in brain filled with Cerebrospinal fluid
    • Goes down brain stem and middle of spinal
    • Comes from blood, brings glucose, go back to blood
    • Helps it float
  23. Spinal cord
    • Foramen magnum
    • Ends at L2 and rest is spinal nerves spreading out
  24. Cerebral Hemisphere
    • Frontal Lobe
    • Parietal Lobe
    • Occipital Lobe
    • Temporal Lobe
    • Cerebellum
  25. Frontal Lobe
    • Central sulcus: dividing line between frontal lobe and parietal lobe
    • Pre-central gyrus (hill)
    • Motor area (movement)
  26. Parietal Lobe
    • Post-central gyrus
    • Primary sensory area
  27. Occipital Lobe
    • Post-central gyrus
    • Primary sensory area
    • Visual area
  28. Temporal Lobe
    Hearing
  29. Cerebellum
    • Coordinates basic body movements
    • Makes smooth coordinated movements
    • Ex: tying a shoe, shifting a car, or hitting a home run
  30. Pre-Frontal Cortex
    • Helps us asses risks of behavior
    • Critical thinking
    • Helping you mature
  31. Executive Functions
    • Abstract reasoning (connect dots)
    • Problem solving
    • Learning from experience
    • Forethought
    • Concentration
    • Behavioral inhibition
    • Programming and planning goal-oriented behaviors
    • Executive a sequence of responses to avoid negative consequences or interactions
    • Generating alternative socially-adaptive behavioral responses
    • Verbal ability
    • Attention
  32. White matter
    • Full of axons
    • Myelin
  33. 3rd Ventricle
    • Thalamus: (Gray matter) senses go here and goes to right part of brain
    • Hypothalamus: controls pituitary gland
  34. Brainstem
    • Midbrain: relay track between cerebellum, spinal cord, and cerebrum
    • Pons: helps regulate breathing
    • Medulla Oblongata: lowest part of brain regulated heart and blood pressure
  35. Limbic System
    • Biological drawings: eat
    • Emotion: anger, fear
    • Memory formation
  36. Reticular Formation/RAS
    Reticular Activating System (RAS) determines the level of alertness
  37. Peripheral Nervous System
    • Cranial nerves
    • Spinal nerves
  38. Reflex Arc
    • 1. Sensory receptor
    • 2. Sensory neuron
    • 3. Interneuron (s)
    • 4. Motor neuron
    • 5. Effector organ
  39. Peripheral Nervous System Divisions
    • Somatic nervous system (voluntary)
    • Autonomic nervous system (involuntary)
  40. Autonomic Nervous System
    • 2 neurons
    • Stimulates/inhibits:
    • Cardiac muscle
    • Smooth muscle
    • Glands
  41. Autonomic Nervous System Ganglia and Neurotransmitters
    • Neurotransmitters of Autonomic Nervous System
    • Acetylcholine (ACh)
    • Noradrenaline (NA) AKA norepinephrine (NE)
  42. Sympathetic Nervous System
    • Fight or Flight:
    • Heart rate and blood pressure increase
    • Airways dilate
    • Use skeletal muscle, more ATP, more oxygen, more blood flow
    • Blood flow to skeletal muscle increases
    • Causes orgasm
    • Norepinephrine is postganglionic
  43. Parasympathetic Nervous System
    • Rest and Digest:
    • Pupils contract
    • Heart rate slows
    • Digestion increases
    • Causes erection
    • Acetylcholine is neurotransmitter
  44. Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Similarity
    Keep us in homeostasis

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