Pathology Exam 4

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r_webby
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13960
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Pathology Exam 4
Updated:
2010-04-11 17:27:28
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pathology exam
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Skin, Male Urogenital System
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  1. Ulcer / Ulceration
    exposure of the CT
  2. Macule
    a small (>5mm) pigmented lesion w/o elevation
  3. Papule
    a small (>5mm), pigmented, elevated lesion
  4. Scale
    a thickened keratin layer
  5. Vesicle (pustlue)
    • an elevated, fluid-filled, lesion
    • (if purulent its a pustule)
  6. Bulla
    a large (<5mm) fluid-filled, elevated lesion
  7. Erythematous Area
    a red area
  8. Leukoplakia
    a white area
  9. Hyperkeratosis
    a thickened keratin layer; appears as a leukoplakia
  10. Acanthosis
    • a hyperplasia of the spinous cell layer
    • -no malignant potential
    • -appears as a leukoplakia
  11. Acantholysis
    a pocket of fluid in the spinous cell layer
  12. Cellular Dysplasia (Atypia)
    • a pleomorphism
    • -several sizes, staining, shapes
  13. Acute Eczematous Dermatitis
    • a contact allergy
    • -oozing, red lesion
  14. Acne Vulgaris
    An abscess in the sebaceous gland
  15. Cystic Acne
    -a severe form of acne vulgaris that produces scarring
  16. Psoriasis
    • -autoimmune disease
    • -rapid maturation and movement of basal cells
  17. Pemphigus
    • -autoimmune disease
    • -produces large acantholysis (fluid in spinous cell layer)
  18. Skin Warts
    -benign tumors (often from HPV)
  19. Types of Nevi
    • -intradermal: all the cells are in dermis (not malignant)
    • -compound: cells in both dermis and epidermis (not malignant)
    • -Junctional: cells at the dermo-epidermal junction (small malignant potential)
    • -Dysplastic (atypical mole): a serious malignant potential(can arise from normal mole)
  20. Basal Cell Carcinoma
    • -will not metastasize
    • -UV-B is involved
    • -most common type of skin cancer
    • -middle 1/3 of face
    • -Lesion: central ulceration w/ a rolled margin
  21. Squamous Cell Carcinoma
    • -will metastasize
    • -UV-B, oil products, and radiation are carcinogens
    • -lower 1/3 of face
  22. Malignant Melanoma
    • -rarest and most dangerous skin cancer
    • -typically fails the ABCD test
  23. ABCD test for melanoma
    • A: Asymmetrical
    • B: Border is uneven or faded
    • C: Color is not constant (shades exist)
    • D: Diameter is >6mm
  24. Skin Adenomas
    • -rare type of skin cancer
    • -arises from sebaceous or sweat glands
  25. Kaposi's Sarcoma
    • -seen in AIDS patients
    • -a hemangiosarcoma (cancer of the small dermal blood vessels)
  26. Elhers-Danlos Syndrome
    • -a genetic disorder in the collagen fiber
    • -allows it to be stretched well beyond normal limits (joints and skin)
  27. Filtering Ability of the Kidneys
    • -200L pass thru
    • -180L exit via glomerular apparatus
    • -178L reabsorbed
  28. 4 functions of Kidney
    • -BP regulation
    • -Waste excretion
    • -RBC maturation (erithropoetian)
    • -ion/pH buffering and regulation
  29. Oliguria
    -decreased function of the kidneys
  30. Proteinuria
    -protein in the urine
  31. Glycossuria
    -excess glucose in the urine
  32. Hematuria
    -blood in the urine
  33. Azotemia
    • -elevated BUN and creatinine in blood
    • -indicates an underlying kidney issue
  34. Uremia
    • -elevated BUN and creatinine plus edema, itching, etc
    • -chronic renal failure
  35. Polycystic kidneys
    • -many cysts form filled with urine
    • -second most common form of renal failure
  36. Progression of renal vascular disease
    • -atherosclerosis --> detection of "low BP"
    • -renin release (to ^ BP)
    • -higher systemic BP --> further atherosclerosis
  37. Glomerulonephritis
    • -a general term for inflammation of the nephron
    • -most common cause of renal failure
  38. Pylonephritis
    -a purulent lesion in the renal pelvis (acute or chronic)
  39. Calculus (stone) Predisposition
    • -kidney infections
    • -concentrated urine
    • -urine backlog (enlarged prostate)
  40. Hydronephrosis
    • -ureter backup --> urine collection in kidney
    • -enlarges with cellular atrophy
  41. Renal Tumors
    • Benign: an adenoma with few issues (slight malignant potential)
    • Malignant (in children): Wilm's tumor
    • -palpable mass, hemoteurea and idiopathic fever
    • -genetic
    • Malignant (adult): Renal cell (clear cell) carcinoma
    • -painless hemoteurea, palpable mass, flank pain
    • -genetic predisposition, long term dialysis, smoking
  42. Transitional Epithelium
    -renal pelvis, ureters and urinary bladder
  43. Cystitis
    • -inflammation of the urinary bladder
    • -typically from an infection
    • Complications: can produce calculus (stone) and is carcinogenic
    • S&S: ^urination, pain on both palpation and urination
  44. Bladder Cancers
    • -typically transitional cell carcinomas
    • -more common in males
    • Risk factors: smoking, industrial carcinogens
  45. Benign Prostate Hyperplasia (BPH)
    • -caused by excess androgens (can be prevented by castration)
    • -treated via p.o. medications
    • -can cause occlusion of urethra
  46. Adenocarcinoma of Prostate
    • -very common in elderly (not always dangerous)
    • -Gleason score (2-10) tells how aggressive it is
    • Risk factors: genetic component, chronic prostatitis, caramelized animal fat
    • -metastases to bone common; produces a radiopaque lesion
    • Treatment: removal, maybe radiation and chemo as well
  47. Prostate Specific Antigen
    -elevated levels are detected in BPH, prostatitis, and prostate cancer
  48. Prostatitis
    -inflammation of the prostate
  49. Testicular Tumors
    • -occur young (15-35 yrs)
    • -a firm solitary and painless mass
    • Two types: mostly seminomas, rarely Embryonal carcinoma
  50. Undescended Testes (Cryptorchidism)
    • -gets stuck in the inguinal canal
    • -must be correctly placed or removed (can develop into seminoma; a cancer)
  51. Penis Cancer
    • -SCC
    • -rare in the US; not seen if circumcised young
    • -rapidly metastasizes to inguinal lymph nodes
  52. Scrotal Cancer
    • -SCC
    • -petroleum products are big carcinogen
  53. Orchitis
    • -inflammation of the testes
    • -severe can lead to occlusion of blood flow
  54. Formation of the skin
    • -Epidermis: Keratinized layer, spinous cell layer, basement membrane (mitoticaly active)
    • -Dermis- Underlying CT, hair follicles, sebaceous glands and sweat glands.

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