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What is an amine neurotransmitter? What are some examples?
A neurotransmitter that is based on modifications of a single amino acid nucleus. E.g. dopamine, serotonin, acetylchoine.
What is a amino acid neurotransmitter? What are some examples?
A neurotransmitter that is itself an amino acid. E.g. GABA, glycine, glutamate.
What is a gas neurotransmitter? Examples?
A gas neurotransmitter is a produced and released by the neuron to alter the functioning of another neuron. Examples include carbon monoxide, or nitric oxide.
What is a peptide neurotransmitter?
A neurotransmitter consisting of a short chain of amino acids. (peptides are made up of amino acids)
What is a receptor?
A protein that captures and reacts to molecules of a neurotransmitter or hormone.
Types of receptors: Ionotropic receptor?
a receptor protein that includes an ion channel that opens when it is bound by an agonist.
Types of receptors: Metabotropic receptor?
A receptor protein that does not contain and ion channel but may, when activated, use a G protein system to open a nearby channel.
Any type of receptor that has functional characteristics that distinguish it from other types of receptors for the same neurotransmitter.
What is a Ligand? What is its relationship to receptors?
A ligand is a substance that binds to receptor molecules, such as those at the surface of the cell. Its relationship to receptors is that either agonist, antagonist or inverse ligands bind to receptors to cause the associated effect.
What is an antagonist ligand?
A type of ligand that binds to a receptor but does NOT activate it! Thusly blocking it from being activated by other ligands.
What is an agonist ligand?
A classification of an ligand as an agonist means that it initiates the normal effects of the neurotransmitter on the receptor
What is an inverse agonist?
a less common ligand-binds to the receptor and initiates an effect that is the opposite of what the neurotransmitter normally does.
What is an endogenous ligand?
a ligand that is produced within the body (by the brain). AKA, it occurs naturally
What does it mean if something is exogenous?
It means that it is produced outside of the body and can be introduced from outside the body
What is a noncompetitive agonist?
an agonist that binds to a site thats different than the site binded to by a neurotransmitter
What is a noncompetitive antagonist?
an antagonist that binds to a site different than the site binded to by a neurotransmitter. When a neurotransmitter goes to bind, the channel does not open.
What is acetylchoine consist of?
acetate and choline.
What are the receptors for Ach? What types of receptors are they?
nicotinic; iontropic (excitatory, fast responding) and muscarinic; metabotropic (G coupled, slow responding, excitatory and inhibitory) receptors
Where are cholinergic cells (ACh containing) located?
Basal forebrain; project to hippocampus and amygdala and cerebral cortex
What is the type of ligand that binds to the nicotine receptor?
What is the type of ligand that binds to the muscarinic receptor?
What is a monamine? What are their two principle classes and what to they derive from?
modified amino acids: catecholamines ( from tyrosine) and indoleamines ( from tryptophan).
What are catecholamine neurotransmitters?
dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine
What are indoleamines?
melatonin and serotonin
What type of transmitter is dopamine? where is it found?
a monoamine transmitter found in the midbrain-especially the substantia nigra- and basal forebrain
What are the two pathways that dopaminergic axons, extending from the midbrain, dominate?
Mesostriatal pathway; originating from midbrain (substantia nigra), innervating the basal ganglia and the mesolimbocortical pathway; originating in the midbrain (ventral tegmental area) innervating to the limbic system and cortex.
What is norepinephrine? What is another name for norepinephrine?
A neurotransmitter produceed and released by the sympathetic postganglionic neurons to accelerate organ activity. Also produced in the brain stem (locus coeruleus). Another name for it is noradrenaline (noradrenic)
What is serotonin? Where is it located?
Serotonin is a synaptic transmitter produced in the raphe nuclei (midbrain and brainstem) and is active in structures throughout the cerebral hemispheres.
What are the amino acid neurotransmitters? What kinds of neurotransmitters are they? (excitatory or inhibitory)
- Glutamate, aspartate (excitatory neurotransmitters)
- GABA and glycine (inhibitory neurotransmitters)
What type of glutamate receptors are involved in learning and memory?
NDMA type glutamate receptors
What is excitotoxicity? Example?
- The property by which neurons die when overstimulated, as with large amounts of glutamate that produce prolonged depolarization of postsynaptic cells.
What are the properties of GABAA, GABAb, and GABAC receptors?
- GABAA Receptors: ionotropic with chloride channel
- GABAB Receptors: metabotropic
- GABA C Receptors: ionotropic with chloride channel but differ in subunit structure
What are GABA Agonists?
tranquilizers such as valium
What are opiod peptides?
A type of endogenous peptide that mimics the effects of morphine in binding to opiod receptors and producing marked analgesia and reward.
Which Neurotransmitters are Gases?
Nitric Oxide (NO), a soluable gas that serves as a retrograde gas neurotransmitter (diffusing from post back into pre to stimulate changes in synaptic efficacy) in the nervous system.
What is a dose response curve?
A graph of the relationship between drug doses and the effects
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