Exam #2 Ch. 13.txt

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  1. Endocrine and Nervous System
    • Regulatory
    • Chemical Signals
    • Negative Feedback
  2. Nervous System
    • Rapid Communication
    • Short-lived response
  3. Endocrine System
    • Slow Communication
    • Longer Response
  4. Hormones
    circulating chemical messenger molecules secreted by an endocrine gland or cell into the bloodstream that has effects on specific target cells throughout the body.
  5. Possible Hormone Actions
    • Target cell increases uptake of a substance
    • Change in cell structure occurs
    • Increase or decrease in metabolism
  6. Peptide Hormones
    • Protein based
    • Binds to cell surface receptor
    • Triggers release of pre-made enzyme inside cell
    • Second messenger has cellular effect
  7. Steroid Hormones
    • Cholesterol based
    • Produced by ovaries, testes, and adrenal glands
    • Binds to receptors inside the cell
    • New proteins need to be made
    • Slower to act than peptide hormone
    • Longer action than peptide Hormone
  8. Endocrine Control
    • Hypothalamus secretes hormones which make other endocrine glands secrete hormones
    • �Boss telling managers to tell the workers to do work�
  9. Pituitary Gland
    • Hands down from the hypothalamus
    • Master of all the glands in the endocrine system
    • Anterior and Posterior lobe
  10. Posterior Pituitary Lobe
    • To the right
    • Neurosecretory
    • Releases 2 Hormones: Antidiuretic hormone and Oxytocin
  11. Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
    • Negative feedback
    • 1.High level of salt in blood
    • 2.Hypothalamus
    • 3.Posterior Pituitary
    • 4ADH released into bloodstream
    • 5.Kidney conserve water
    • 6.Blood becomes dilute
    • Targets Kidneys
    • Reduces amount of water lost in urine
  12. Oxytocin
    • Positive Feedback
    • Targets Uterus and Mammary glands
    • Induces uterine contractions
    • Induces ejection of milk from mammary glands
  13. Neurosecretory
    • Neuron in hypothalamus produces hormone
    • Travels down axon into posterior pituitary
    • Hormone secreted from axon terminal
    • Hormone enters blood around pituitary
    • Hormone travels in blood to target
  14. Anterior Pituitary Lobe
    • To the left
    • Hypothalamic � Pituitary Portal System
    • Releases 6 Hormones (FLAT PIG)
  15. Hypothalamic � Pituitary Portal system
    • Blood travels from hypothalamus to anteroir pituitary
    • Makes and secretes its own hormones
    • Hypothalamic Releasing Hormones stimulate release from pituitary
  16. 6 Hormones released by Anterior Pituitary Lobe
    • FSH � Follicle-stimulating hormone
    • LH � Luteinizing hormone
    • ACTH � Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
    • TSH � Thyroid-stimulating hormone
    • PRL � Prolactin
    • GH � Growth hormone
  17. Follicle-stimulating Hormone
    • Targets ovaries and testes
    • Primary actions:
    • In females, stimulates egg maturation and and the secretion of estrogen.
    • In males, stimulates the formation of sperm
  18. Luteinizing Hormone
    • Targets ovaries and testes
    • Primary actions:
    • In females, stimulates ovulation (egg release) and the secretion of progesterone
    • In males, testosterone secretion
  19. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
    • Targets Adrenal Cortex
    • Primary Actions:
    • Stimulates adrenal cortex to release glucocorticoids
  20. Thyroid-stimulating Hormone
    • T3 and T4 are two thyroid hormones
    • Body recognizes T3 and T4 moving around and shows negative feedback
    • And then body won't release any more TRH
    • Targets Thyroid glands
    • Primary actions:
    • Stimulates synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormones
  21. Hypothyroidism
    • Problem with the Iodine (not enough)
    • Not enough iodine means body kicks out more TRH
    • Iodine in the salt prevents goiters (bulge in the necks)
  22. Hyperthyroidism
    • Too much Iodine
    • Also causes goiters
    • Symptoms:
    • See whites of eyes all the way around
    • Bulging eyes
    • heat intolerance
    • heart rate up
    • easy to lose weight
  23. Thyroid gland and Calcitonin
    • Thyroid gland makes calcitonin
    • Calcitonin sends calcium
    • into the bones to be deposited in bones and prevents bone break down so blood calcium levels remain normal
    • 1. If calcium level rises above set point
    • 2. Thyroid gland releases calcitonin
    • 3. Blood calcium level falls
    • 4. Homeostasis
  24. Parathyroid Hormone and Parathyroid Glands
    • In response to low calcium level, parathyroid gland releases parathyroid hormone
    • Parathyroid hormone helps blood calcium rise
    • Bones release calcium from bone through osteoclasts
    • Osteoclasts activity increases
    • If high: stimulates thyroid
    • If low: stimulates parathyroids
    • No hypothalamus and no pituitary involved.
  25. Parathyroid Hormone
    • In response to high calcium, thyroid gland releases calcitonin, stimulating calcium deposition in bones and reduces calcium uptake in kidneys
    • Stimulates calcium release from bones
    • Increase calcium re-absorption in kidneys
    • Increase calcium absorption in intestines
    • (Due to kidneys converting vitamin D to activated vitamin D)
  26. Prolactin
    • Targets mammary glands
    • Primary Actions:
    • Stimulates the development of mammary gland cells and production of milk
  27. Growth Hormone
    • Regulates how fast amino acids are entering.
    • Amino acids together are making protein, making more muscle
    • Builds muscle, but does not make muscle strength
    • Helps metabolize/break fat
    • Targets most cells
    • Primary actions:
    • Stimulates growth in young individuals;
    • Plays multiple roles in cell division, protein synthesis, and metabolism in adults.
  28. Pituitary Dwarfism
    • Not enough growth Hormone
    • Not hereditary
    • Perfectly proportional, just small
  29. Gigantism
    • Long bone growth
    • Too much growth hormone
    • Epiphyseal plate growing
  30. Acromegaly
    • Broad bones
    • Cant get long bone growth so other dimensions of the bones grow
    • Can't get long bone growth because epiphyseal plates are fused
  31. Medulla
  32. Cortex
  33. Adrenal Medulla
    • Preganglionic SNS fiber stimulates adrenal medulla cells
    • CSN to pregaglionic SNS fiber to medulla of adrenal gland to capillary
    • To secrete epinephrine and norepinephrine
  34. Adrenal cortex
    • Outer part: 3 layers
    • Outer layer produces hormones called Mineralocorticoids
    • Next layer down has Glucorticoids
    • Lowest layer has Adrenogens
  35. Mineralocorticoids
    �salt� based hormones
  36. Glucorticoids
    �sugar� based hormones
  37. Adrenogens
    �sex� hormones
  38. Adrenal Cortex: Mineralocorticoids
    • Low blood volume
    • Low blood pressure
    • Body recognizes low blood volume and low blood pressure
    • adrenal gland kick out aldosterone,
    • kidneys reabsorbs sodium
    • leading to decreases in water in urine, increases in blood volume and increases in blood pressure.
  39. Adrneal Cortex: Glucocorticoids
    • Adrenal cortex kicks out cortisol
    • Decreases muscle mass/breaks down hormone
    • Stress hormone
    • Blood sugar going up
    • Suppresses immune system
  40. Addison Disease
    • Hyposecretion of Cortisol (not enough of)
    • Hyperpigmentation due to hypersecretion of ACTH
  41. Crushing Disease
    • Stores a lot of fat
    • Hypersecretion of Cortisol (too much of)
    • Muscle depletion/weakness
    • Fat stored: buffalo hump, moon, facies, truncal obesity
    • Thin skin/striae
  42. Pancreatic Hormones
    • Pancrease behind the stomach
    • Insulin
    • Glucagon
  43. Insulin
    • Beta Cells � Secrete insulin when blood glucose levels go above normal
    • Sends glucose into cells
    • High blood glucose ? pancreas ? Insulin released by Beta cels of pancrease ? Fat cells take in glucose from blood ? achieve normal blood glucose levels
  44. Glucagon
    • Alpha cells � Secrete glucagon when blood glucose levels become low
    • Attach to liver and fat
    • Low blood glucose ? pancreas ? Glucagon release by alpha cell of pancreas ? liver releases glucose into blood ? achieve normal blood glucose levels
  45. Diabetes Mellitus
    • Signs:
    • Frequent urination*
    • Crave extra liquids*
    • Always hungry*
    • Always tired
    • Numbness and tingling of feet
    • Unexplained weight loss
    • Blurred vision
    • Sexual Dysfunction.
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Exam #2 Ch. 13.txt
endocrine system
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