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pattern of movement or change that begins at conception and continues through the human life span.
the perspective that development is lifelong, multidimensional, multidirectional, plastic, multidisciplinary, and contextual; involves growth, maintenance, and regulation of loss; and is constructed through biological, sociocultural, and individual factors working together.
normative age-graded influences
influences that are similar for individuals in a particular age group.
normative history-graded influences
influences that are common to people of a particular generation because of historical circumstances.
nonnormative life events
unusual occurrences that have a major impact on an individual's life.
- regulation of loss.
development is a co-construction of:
contemporary concerns about development
- health and well-being.
- parenting and education.
- sociocultural contexts and diversity.
the behavior, patterns, beliefs, and all other products of a group of people that are passed on from generation to generation.
comparison of one culture with one or more other cultures. these provide information about the degree to which development is simialr, or universal, across cultures, and the degree to which it is culture-specific.
a characteristic based on cultural heritage, nationality characteristics, race, religion, and language.
socioeconomic status (SES)
classification of a person's position in society based on occupational, educational, and economic characteristics.
the characteristics of people as females or males.
a government's course of action designed to promote the welfare of its citizens.
processes that produce changes in an individual's physical nature.
processes that involve changes in an individual's thought, intelligence, and language.
processes that involve changes in an individual's relationships with other people, emotions, and personality.
developmental cognitive neuroscience
which explores links between development cognitive processes and the brain.
developmental social neuroscience
which examines connections between socioemotioal processes, development, and the brain.
refers to a time frame in a person's life that is characterized by certain features.
periods of development
- prenatal: conception to birth.
- infancy: birth to 18-24months. dependence upon adults.
- early childhood: 2-5yo. preschool years. more self-sufficient.
- middle and late childhood: 6-11yo. child is exposed to the world. reading, writing and arithmetic are mastered.
- adolescence: 10-12 to 18-21yo. pursuit of independence and identity.
- early adulthood: 20s to 30s. personal and economic independence, career development, etc.
- middle adulthood: 40s to 50s. assisting the new generation.
- late adulthood: 60s-70s to death. review, retirement, and adjustment to new social roles involving decreasing heath and strength.
the number of years that have elapsed since birth.
person's age in terms of biological health.
individual's adaptive capacities compared with those of other individuals of the same chronological age.
refers to connectedness with others and the socail roles individuals adopt.
debate about whether development is primarily influenced by nature or nurture. nature refers to an organisms's biological inheritance, nurture to its environmental experiences. the "nature proponents" claim biological inheritance is the more important influence on development; the "nurture proponents" claim that environmental experiences are more important.
debate as to whether and to what degree we become older renditions of our early experience (stability) or whether we develop into someone different from who we were at an earlier point in development (change).
debate that focuses on the extent to which development involves gradual, cumulative change (continuity) or distinct stages (discontinuity).
- conceptualize a process or problem to be studied.
- collect research information (data).
- analyze data.
- draw conclusions.
an interrelated, coherent set of ideas that helps to explain phenomena and make predictions.
specific assumptions and predictions that can be tested to determine their accuracy.
theories that describe development as primarily unconscious and heavily colored by emotion. behavior is merely a surface characteristic, and the symbolic workings of the mind must be analyzed to understand behavior. early experiences with parents are emphasized.
- used case study.
- problems were the result of experiences early in life.
- as children grow up, their focus of pleasure and sexual impulses shifts from the mouth to the anus and eventually to the genitals.
- five stages of psychosexual development: oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital.
theory that proposes eight stages of human development. each stage consists of a unique develoopmental task that confronts individuals with a crisis that must be resolved.
- trust vs mistrust.
- autonomy vs shame and doubt.
- initiative vs guilt.
- industry vs inferiority.
- identity vs identity confusion.
- intimacy vs isolation.
- generativity vs stagnation.
- integrity vs despair.
theory stating that children actively construct their understanding of the world and go through four stages of cognitive development.
piagets's four stages of cognitive development
- sensorimotor: infant constructs an understanding of the world by coordinating sensory experiences with physical actions. an infant progresses from reflexive, instinctual action at birth to the beginning of symbolic thought toward the end of the stage.
- preoperational: the child begins to represent the world with words and images. these words and images reflect increased symbolic thinking and go beyond the connection of sensory infromation and physical action.
- concrete operational: the child can now reason logically about concrete events and classify objects into different sets.
- formal operational: the adoslescent reasons in more abstract, idealistic and logical ways.
sociocultural cognitive theory that emphasizes how culture and social interaction guide cognitive development.
theory emphasizing that individuals manipulate information, monitor it, and strategize about it. central to this theory are the processes of memory and thinking.
bandura's social cognitive theory
theoretical view that behavior, environment, and cognition are the key factors in development.
skinner's operant conditioning
the consequences of a behavior produce changes in the probability of the behavior's occurrence. a behavior followed by a rewarding stimulus is more likely to recur, whereas a behavior followed by a punishing stimulus is less likely to recur.
theory stressing that behavior is strongly influenced by biology, is tied to evolution, and is characterized by critical or sensitive periods.
bronfenbrenner's ecological theory
focuses on five environmental systems: microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem and chronosystem.
- microsystems: setting in which the individual lives.
- mesosystem: relations between microsystems or connections between contexts.
- exosystem: links between the individual's immediate context and a social setting in which the individual does not play an active role.
- macrosystem: involves the culture in which individuals live.
- chronosystem: patterning of environmental events and transitions over the life course, as well as sociohistorical circumstances.
eclectic theoretical orientation
an orientation that does not follow any one theoretical approach, but rather selects from each theory whatever is considered best in it.
- needs to be systematic.
- we need to know what we are looking for.
a controlled setting from which many of the complex factors of the "real world" have been removed.
observing behavior in real-world settings.
test with uniform procedures for administration and scoring. many standardized tests allow a person's performance to be compared with teh performance of other individuals.
an in-depth look at a single individual.
a type of research that aims to observe and record behavior.
a type of research that strives to describe the strength of the relationship between two or more events or characteristics.
a number based on a statistical analysis that is used to describe the degree of association between two variables.
carefully regulated procedure in which one or more factors believed to influence the behavior being studied are manipulated while all other factors are held constant.
electromagnetic waves are used to construct images of a person's brain tissue and biochemical activity.
manipulated, influential, experimental factor. potential cause. this variable can be manipulated independently of other factors to determine its effect.
factor that can change in an experiment, in response to changes in the independent variable. variable that is measured.
- comparison group that is as much like the experimental group as possible and that is treated in every way like the experimental group except for the manipulated factor.
- serve as baseline against the effects of the manipulated condition can be compared.
group whose experience is manipulated.
- important principle for deciding whether each participant will be placed in the experimental group or in the control group.
- assignment is by chance.
time span of research
- cross-sectional approach.
- longitudinal approach.
- cohort effect.
a research strategy in which individuals of different ages are compared at one time.
a research strategy in which the same individual are studied over a period of time, usually several years or more.
effects due to a person's time of birth, era, or generation but not to actual age.
conducting ethical research
- informed consent.
preconceived notion about the abilities of women and men that prevented individuals from pursuing their own interests and achieving their potential.
cultural and ethnic bias
phenomenon of interpreting and judging phenomena by standards inherent to one's own culture.
use of an ethnic label such as African American or Latino in a superficial way that portrays an ethnic group as being more homogeneous than it really is.