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events that are strongly related to age and therefore fairly predictable in which they occur and how long they last.
history graded influences
explain why people born around the same time (a cohort) tend to be alike in ways that set them apart from people born at other times. (wars, depression, technologicaal advances.
typical/average, affects large numbers of people
events that are irregular; they happen to just one person or a few people and do not follow a predictable timeline.
measures of behavior are taken on large numbers of individuals and age-related averages are computed to represent typical development
move through a series of stages in which they confront conflicts btwn biological drives and social expectations. Affects a person's ability to learn, cope with anxiety, get along with others
- emphasizes that how parents manage their childs sexual and aggressive drives in the first few years is crucial for healthy personality development
- emphasized that in addition to mediating btwn id impulses and super ego demands, the ego makes a positive contributionn to development, acquiring attitudes and skills at each stage that make the individual an active, contributing member of society
- gave equal weight to internal and external forces
directly observable events stimuli and responses - are the appropriate focus of study.
Social learning theory
emphasized modeling AKA imitation or observational learning as a powerful source of development.
consists of procedures that combine conditioning and modeling to eliminate undesirable behaviors and increased desirable responese
children actively construct knowledge as they manipulate and explore their world
the human mind might also be veiwed as a symbol-manipulating system through which info flows.
"If we are socialized, we'll become civilized"
Developmental cognitive neuroscience
brings psychologists, biologists, neuroscientists, and medicine together to study the relationship btwn changes in the brain and the developing person's cognitive processing and behavior patterns
- start = puberty
- end= different for different cultures
- Latin: "grow into adulthood"
- Greek: reasoning begins
America - Industrial Revolution
3 economic/demographic developments
- 1. Change from agricultural society to industrialized (mechanized)
- 2. immigration (wave of immigrants- opportunities for land
- 3. closing of the american frontier - when all the land was taken = urbanization!
dramatic increase in urban population give rise to problems - unsupervised immigrant children.