adol. devel.

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adol. devel.
2012-03-04 20:41:39

adolescent psychology
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  1. Age-graded influences
    events that are strongly related to age and therefore fairly predictable in which they occur and how long they last.
  2. history graded influences
    explain why people born around the same time (a cohort) tend to be alike in ways that set them apart from people born at other times. (wars, depression, technologicaal advances.
  3. Normative
    typical/average, affects large numbers of people
  4. Nonnormative influences
    events that are irregular; they happen to just one person or a few people and do not follow a predictable timeline.
  5. Normative approach
    measures of behavior are taken on large numbers of individuals and age-related averages are computed to represent typical development
  6. Psychoanalytic perspective
    move through a series of stages in which they confront conflicts btwn biological drives and social expectations. Affects a person's ability to learn, cope with anxiety, get along with others
  7. Psychosexual theory
    • Freud
    • emphasizes that how parents manage their childs sexual and aggressive drives in the first few years is crucial for healthy personality development
  8. Psychosocial theory
    • Erikson
    • emphasized that in addition to mediating btwn id impulses and super ego demands, the ego makes a positive contributionn to development, acquiring attitudes and skills at each stage that make the individual an active, contributing member of society
    • gave equal weight to internal and external forces
  9. Behaviorism
    directly observable events stimuli and responses - are the appropriate focus of study.
  10. Social learning theory
    emphasized modeling AKA imitation or observational learning as a powerful source of development.
  11. Behavior modification
    consists of procedures that combine conditioning and modeling to eliminate undesirable behaviors and increased desirable responese
  12. Cognitive-Development Theory
    children actively construct knowledge as they manipulate and explore their world
  13. Information processing
    the human mind might also be veiwed as a symbol-manipulating system through which info flows.
  14. Hall
    "If we are socialized, we'll become civilized"
  15. Developmental cognitive neuroscience
    brings psychologists, biologists, neuroscientists, and medicine together to study the relationship btwn changes in the brain and the developing person's cognitive processing and behavior patterns
  16. Adolescence
    • start = puberty
    • end= different for different cultures
    • Latin: "grow into adulthood"
    • Greek: reasoning begins
  17. Adolescence
    America - Industrial Revolution
    3 economic/demographic developments
    • 1. Change from agricultural society to industrialized (mechanized)
    • 2. immigration (wave of immigrants- opportunities for land
    • 3. closing of the american frontier - when all the land was taken = urbanization!

    dramatic increase in urban population give rise to problems - unsupervised immigrant children.