2nd science test

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  1. natality
    number of births in a population
  2. mortality
    number of deaths in a population
  3. survivorship curve
    shows the proportion of individuals likely to survive at each life stage
  4. sex ratio
    proportion of males to females
  5. age distribution
    number of each age and gender
  6. population density
    how many people are in one place
  7. 3 factors of population density
    • habitat quality
    • soil type
    • avaliability of water
  8. dispersal
    moving from area of high pop density to low dens
  9. lag phase
    few births because growth takes time before reproductive age
  10. log phase
    parents and offspring in reproductive age (natality>mortality)
  11. Deceleration
    natality starting to equalize with mortality
  12. equilibrium
    natality= mortality
  13. extrinsic limiting factors
    anything outside of the population that can control population growth
  14. intrinsic limiting factor
    anything within the population that can control population growth
  15. total fertility rate
    the number of children a woman has in her entire lifetime
  16. replacement fertility
    parents produce 2 kids who will replace them when they die
  17. zero population growth
    birth rate equals death rate
  18. age distribution
    number of people of each age in the population
  19. changing the demographic: 4 stages
    • stage 1: high birth rate, high death rate, stable population
    • stage 2: high birthrate, low deathrate, population increases
    • stage 3: technological development begins, birthrate falls, population continue increase
    • stage 4: high technology, low birthrate, low death rate, stable population
  20. Carrying Capacity of a population
    • the environment can maintain population until some point due to environmental resistance factors
    • examples of factors:
    • disease
    • low food supply
    • limited space
    • predators
    • low oxygen supply
  21. Population Growth limitations
    • availability of raw materials
    • availability of energy (internal energy; consumption, food)
    • accumulation of waste products
    • interactions with other organisms
  22. influences to human population growth
    • social factors like religion, tradition, etc
    • economic factors like the need to have children to help work a farm or something
    • political factors like low birth rates or too many people
  23. energy consumption; developed vs undeveloped countries
    • developed world: we use a lot of energy for residence, commerce, industry and transportation
    • less developed world: use less energy, primarily for cooking and heating
  24. resource
    something naturally occuring that we can potentially use to make money
  25. reserve
    something we know about and already use to make money
  26. non renewable resources
    oil, coal, nuclear energy, fossil fuels, etc
  27. stages of energy over time
    • biomass (wood)
    • coal
    • oil
    • natural gas
    • hydroelectric (waterpower)
    • nuclear
  28. fossil fuel formation
    fossil fuel comes from dead organic material. takes a long time to make fossil fuels because it has to be continuously exposed to extreme temperature and pressure over time
  29. coal types
    • peat: used in gardens, high moisture, low energy, doesnt burn well
    • lignite: is crumbly, high moisture, low energy, burned locally
    • bituminous: soft, higher energy, used to power electrical plants
    • anthracite: rare, very dry, highest energy, best for heating purposes
  30. coal extracting methods
    • surface mining: cut up a mountain, get to the coal)
    • dig shafts
  31. problems with coal mining
    • danger
    • landscape disturbance kills ecosystems
    • air pollution
    • acid rain and acid mine drainage
    • carbon dioxide release
  32. hydroelectric power and concerns
    • creates energy by flowing water
    • water turns a turbine that turns a generator that produces electricity
    • problems: flooding, fish migrations, silt, bacteria buildup
  33. solar power and concerns
    • passive heating: converts light energy to heat energy
    • active heating: uses heat from the sun hooked up to water pumps and hot water radiator. requires moving energy from one place to another
    • solar panels: they harvest solar power and store it too. they're super expensive though
  34. Alpha radiation
    • made of two neutrons and two protons
    • dosesn't travel through the air very far and can be stopped by paper or the outer layer of the skin
  35. beta radiation
    • made of moving electrons released from a nuclei
    • travel more rapidly and further than alpha particles
    • can be stopped by a layer of clothing, glass, or aluminum
  36. gamma radiation
    • electromagnetic radiation thats not made of particles
    • examples: x rays, light, radio waves
    • can pass through your body, several centimeters of lead, and nearly a meter of concrete
  37. Nuclear fuel cycle
    Image Upload 1
  38. nuclear concerns
    • reactor safety
    • terrorism
    • exposure
    • contamination
    • disposal of waste
    • thermal pollution
    • plant decomissioning
    • •Decommission – remove fuel rods, clean surfaces, condemn building
  39. Nuclear Disasters
    • 3 mile island: PA, 1979, cooling pump failed, safety measures failed, bad info and decisions by operator, core partially melted
    • Chernobyl: Ukraine, 1986, shut of steam which shut off warning systems, automatic shutdown systems, and emergency cooling systems. core melted
    • Fukushima: Japan, 2011, earthquate and resulting tsunami flooded facility, generators were cooling reactors but they flooded, all 3 reactors suffered complete meltdown
  40. Radioactivity
    The spontaneous emission of particles of energy from an atomic nucleus as it disintegrates.
  41. Nuclear Fission
    Splitting atoms to into smaller parts to generate energy.
  42. Isotope
    Atom with altered number of neutrons
  43. Radioactive Isotope
    Isotope with unstable nucleus that decays spontaneously. This decomposition is highly exothermic.
  44. atomic number
    Number of protons in the nucleus
  45. mass number
    • number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus
    • another name for protons and neutrons is nucleons
  46. radioactive decay
    One radioactive nucleus decays to a second, then to a third, etc...The process continues until a stable nucleus is produced.
  47. Radioactive Half-Life
    Time required for one-half of the radioactive material to decompose spontaneously
  48. Critical Mass
    Sufficient mass and concentration to produce a chain reaction
  49. fuel rods and control rods
    • •Fuel Rods –Contain enriched uranium pellets
    • •Control Rods–Contain material (usually Cd)that absorb neutrons. Used to control chain reaction
  50. Mechanical Weathering
    • 1.Temperature Changes
    • 2.Plant Roots
    • 3.Abrasion (i.e., glacial movements)
    • 4.Animal Burrows
  51. Chemical Weathering
    • 1.Oxidation (Fe2O3)
    • 2.Dissolution of rock via acid rain
  52. soil formation
    • 1. Fragmentation of parent material. Soil type contingent on parent material, climate, time, slope of the land, and flora and fauna
    • 2. Pioneered by lichens, which trap small organic and inorganic particles
    • 3.Decomposition of dead lichens and other organic matter release acids
    • 4. More plants become established, producing humus, increasing water holding capacity and soil acidity, making inorganic nutrients bioavailable
    • 5. Burrowing animals introduced to aerate and mix soil components
    • 6. Fungi and bacteria play roles in nutrient cycles as decomposers
  53. soil profile part 1
    Image Upload 2
  54. soil profile part 2
    • Grassland: low rainfall, little leaching- Roots remain near surface à deep layer of topsoil- Lack of leaching à thin subsoil layer, low in organic content
    • Forest: Tree roots penetrate deeper layers and extract water from them- Thin layer of organic matter on surface- Plenty of leaching
    • Desert: Poorly developed horizons- Much of the soil is exposed and eroded
  55. soil conservation
    Image Upload 3
  56. ways to do soil conservation
    • Enhance organic matter
    • Avoid excessive tillage
    • Easy on chemicals
    • Prevent compaction
    • Cover ground to reduce erosion
    • Diversify crop system
    • Contour Farming
    • Terracing
    • Waterways
    • Windbreaks
Card Set
2nd science test
study for stone's 2nd test for bio 160
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