Anatomy & Physiology

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melmoon
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139654
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Anatomy & Physiology
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2012-03-20 18:16:21
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Anatomy Physiology
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Basic Sciences
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  1. Which of the following structures is located in the alveolar processes?
    Teeth
  2. The portion of the stomach surrounding the lower esophageal sphincter is called the:
    Cardia
  3. The islets of Langerhans secrete:
    Insulin
  4. The area in the duodenum where common bile duct and the pancreatic duct empty is called the:
    Ampulla of Vater
  5. The primary function of the gallbladder is to:
    Store bile
  6. The plicae curculares, microbilli, & villi are:
    Structures that increase surface absorption area in the small intestine
  7. The first part of the small intestine is:
    Duodenum
  8. The appendix is attached to the:
    Cecum
  9. The double-layered, apron-like structure that hangs from the lower border of the stomach is the:
    Greater omentum
  10. The main function of the large intestine is to:
    Reabsorb water & electrolytes
  11. A chemical reaction that provides energy by the breakdown of food molecules is called:
    Catabolism
  12. Which of the following substances is the body's preferred source of energy?
    Carbohydrates
  13. The process by which glucose is stroed in the liver & skeletal muscle cells as glycogen is:
    Glycogenesis
  14. The structure that binds the small intestine to the posterior abdominal wall is the:
    Mesentery
  15. The slaivary glands located in the front of the ear that become inflamed & enlarged during mumps are the:
    Parotid
  16. The catabolism of fats produces which of the following substances?
    Ketone bodies
  17. Vitamins A, D, E, & K are absorbed in the:
    Intestine
  18. The organ that lies posterior to the greater curvature of the stomach & is connected by a duct to the duodenum is the:
    Pancreas
  19. When body cells require energy, what molecule is broken down?
    ATP molecule
  20. The outer layer ofthe intestine is the:
    Serosa
  21. The Cricoid cartilage is a:
    Ring of cartilage forming the inferior walls of the larynx
  22. The passageway for foods & liquids into the digestive system & for air into the respiratory system is the:
    Pharynx
  23. The larynx is located between the:
    Pharynx & trachea
  24. The vocal cords are located in the:
    Larynx
  25. Which structure has three divisions consisting of naso, oro, & laryngeal?
    Pharynx
  26. The function of the trachea is to:
    Conduct air to & from the lungs
  27. The space between the voocal cords is called the:
    Glottis
  28. The nasal cavity is divided into two portions by the:
    Septum
  29. The structure that drains excess tears to the nasal cavity, causing the nose to run is the:
    Nasolacrimal duct
  30. The cartilaginous nasal septum lies upon which bone?
    Vomer
  31. The structure that connects the middle ear & the throat, allowing the eardrum to vibrate freely, is the:
    Eustachian tube
  32. Another name for the tympanic membrane is the:
    Eardrum
  33. The winding, cone-shaped tube of the inner ear is the:
    Cochlea
  34. The nasal sinus located bewteen the nose & the orbits is the:
    Ethmoid
  35. Which ossicle of the middle ear covers the oval window?
    Stapes
  36. The large, leaf-shaped laryngeal cartilage that acts as a trap door over the larynx is the:
    Epiglottis
  37. Which part of the eas is responsible for equilibrium?
    Pinna
  38. A term referring to the waxy secretion in the external ear canal is:
    Cerumen
  39. Which of the following structures is not an ossicle of the middle ear?
    Vestibule
  40. The fluid within the membranous labyrinth is called:
    Endolymph
  41. In the physiology of hearing, sound waves collect in the ____ & pass on to hit the____:
    External auditory canal, tympanic membrane
  42. Striated-voluntary muscle tissue is found in the ____ muscle tissue.
    Skeletal
  43. The white, tough layer of the eye that gives it its shape is the:
    Sclera
  44. The layer of the eye that is clear, covers the iris, & contains no blood vessels is the:
    Cornea
  45. The layer of the eye that absorbs light rays & nourishes the retina through its numerous blood vessels is the:
    Choroid
  46. Which muscle alters the shape of the lens of the eye to accommodate near or far vision?
    Ciliary muscle
  47. What structure regulates the amount of light entering the eye & assists in obtaining a clear image?
    Iris
  48. Intraocular pressure is primarily dependent on:
    Aqueous humor
  49. At eh junction of the sclera & cornea is a venous sinus known as the:
    Canal of Schlemm
  50. The smooth intrinsic muscle that alters the shape of the eye lens is the:
    Ciliary body
  51. The ciliary body is part of which layer of the eye?
    Vascular
  52. A capillary network of blood vessels within the renal cortex that functions as a filter is called the:
    Glomerulus
  53. The triangular area of the bladder that is formed by the two openings of the ureters & the opening of the urethra is known as the:
    Trigone
  54. Gerota's fascia is located:
    Around the kidney
  55. The kidneys are positioned:
    Retroperitoneally
  56. The functional unit of the kidney responsible for removing waste & regulating fluid is the:
    Nephron
  57. The most abundant extracellular ion necessary for the transmission of impulses is:
    Sodium
  58. The prostate gland secretes:
    Alkaline fluid
  59. The first step of urine production in which fluids & dissolved substances are forced through a membrane by pressure is called:
    Glomerular filtration
  60. Sperm are produced by the:
    Seminiferous tubules
  61. The cup-like extensions of the kidney pelvis that collect urine from the pyramids are:
    Calyces
  62. The notch on the kidney through which the ureters exit is the:
    Hilum
  63. Which of the following is the principal male hormone produced in the testes & responsible for sexual characteristics?
    Testosterone
  64. The comma-shaped organ that lies along the posterior border of the testies is the:
    Epididymis
  65. The only artery in the body that carries unoxygenated blood is the:
    Pulmonary artery
  66. The pacemaker of the heart is the:
    SA node
  67. Which arteries are formed by the bifurcation of the abdominal aorta?
    Iliac
  68. The process by which blood cells are formed is known as:
    Hemopoiesis
  69. Which of the following arises from the left ventricle?
    Aorta
  70. The pancreas lies behind the stomach & duodenum in the right & left upper quadrants & is divided into ____ portions.
    Three
  71. Which organ is responsible for the synthesis of many of the coagulation factors?
    Liver
  72. The atrioventricular (AV) valve between the left atrium & the left ventricle is the:
    Tricuspid
  73. The inner layer of an artery is known as the:
    Intima
  74. Which of the following vessels arises from the right ventricle?
    Pulmonary artery
  75. Which of the following vessels do not empty into the right atrium?
    Pulmonary veins
  76. The large artery found behind the knee is the:
    Popliteal
  77. The large artery that arises from the left side of the aortic arch & descends into the arm is the:
    Subclavian
  78. The medial mallcolus is part of which bone?
    Tibia
  79. The sutures of the skull are examples of:
    Synarthrosis
  80. Which characteristic does not belong to a synovial joint?
    Synchondrosis containing hyaline cartilage
  81. Which of the following is an example of a saddle joint?
    Thumb & trapezlum
  82. Smooth, sustained contractions produced by several very rapid stimuli are called:
    Tetanus
  83. The dense white/fibrous covering around bone is the:
    Periosteum
  84. An example of a short bone is the:
    Wrist
  85. A large, bony process found on the femur is a:
    Trochanter
  86. The foramen magnum is found in which bone?
    Occipital
  87. An example of a flat bone is the:
    Cranial bones
  88. The acromion is part of which bone?
    Scapula
  89. The olecranon is part of which bone?
    Ulna
  90. Which of the following is not a carpal?
    Styloid
  91. The only bone in the body that does not articulate with another is the:
    Hyoid
  92. The shaft of a bone is known as the:
    Diaphysis
  93. The extremity or end of a bone is known as the:
    Epiphysis
  94. Another name for spongy bone is:
    Cancellous
  95. The vertebrae are examples of what type of bone?
    Irregular
  96. The area of a bone where growth occurs until early adulthood is the:
    Epiphyseal plate
  97. What bones form the greater portion of the sides & roof of the cranial cavity?
    Parietal
  98. The structure that serves as the socket for the head of the femur is the:
    Acetabulum
  99. Where are cruciate ligaments found in the knee?
    Lateral & medial in the knee
  100. A triangular muscle that abducts the arm & covers the shoulder is the:
    Deltoid
  101. The rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, & the vastus intermedius are muscles that extend the legs &are known as the:
    Quadriceps
  102. The muscle that flexes & supinates the forearm & covers the anterior portion of the upper arm is the:
    Biceps brachii
  103. The muscle that forms the bulk of the upper calf is the:
    Gastrocnemius
  104. The mandible articulates with the:
    Temporal bone
  105. The thoracic spine contains how many vertebrae:
    12
  106. The inner lining of the uterus is the:
    Endometrium
  107. The walls of the vagina are lined with:
    Mucous membrane
  108. All of the following ligaments maintain the position of the uterus except the:
    Ovarian ligament
  109. The perineum is the:
    Area between the vagina & the anus
  110. Fertilization of the ovum generally occurs in the:
    Fallopian tubes
  111. The hormone respoinsible for the development & maintenance of the female secondary sex characteristics is:
    Estrogen
  112. The structure that provides an exchange of nutrients & wastes between the fetus & mother & secretes the hormones necessary to maintain the pregnancy is:
    Placenta
  113. The ovary, a granular yellow body that develops after the extrusion of an ovum is the:
    Corpus luteum
  114. The finger-like projections on the end of the fallopian tubes are:
    Fimbriae
  115. The funnel-shaped open distal end of each fallopian tube is called a/an:
    Infundibulum
  116. The portion of the uterus above the level of the iterine tubes is called the:
    Fundus
  117. The elevated adipose tissue over the symphysis is called the:
    Mons pubis
  118. The ovary is attached to the uterus by the:
    Ovarian ligament
  119. The middle layer of the uterus composed of muscle is the:
    Myometrium
  120. The outermost covering of the brain & spinal cord is the:
    Dura mater
  121. The brain contains four fluid-filled spaces called the:
    Ventricles
  122. The area of the brain that controls respiration is the:
    Medulla oblongata
  123. All thought takes place in the:
    Cerebral cortex
  124. The basic unit of the nervous system is the:
    Neuron
  125. The cranial nerve that contains special fibers for hearing as well as for balance is:
    Vestibuloncochlear (VIII)
  126. The peripheral nervous system contains:
    Cranial & spinal nerves
  127. Muscle tone, coordination of voluntary muscles, & balance are controlled in the:
    Cerebellum
  128. The largest part of the brain is the:
    Cerebrum
  129. Which cranial nerve emerges from the medulla, passes through the skull, & descends through the neck region into the thorax & abdominal region?
    Vagus (X)
  130. The cranial nerve that carries moror fibers to the tongue & sensory impulses from the tongue to the brain is the:
    Hypoglossal
  131. Which cranial nerve can be tested for sensations of pain, touch, & temperature with the use of a safety pin & hot & cold objects?
    Trigeminal (V)
  132. Which cranial nerve carries impulses for sense of smell?
    Olfactory (I)
  133. Neurons that conduct impulses to the cardiac muscles are part of the:
    Autonomic nervous system
  134. The contractions of involuntary muscles are controlled by the:
    Autonomic nervous system
  135. The neuroglia are cells that:
    Support & protect
  136. The cytoplasmic process of a neuron that conducts impulses away from the cell body is a/an:
    Axon
  137. The part of the brain that is a continuation of the spinal cord & forms the inferior portion of the brain stem is the:
    Medulla
  138. Which area of the brain produces subconscious skeletal muscle movements required for coordination & balance?
    Cerebellum
  139. The fifth cranial nerve is also called the:
    Trigeminal nerve
  140. Which of the following neuroglia are star shaped & attach neurons to their blood vessels?
    Astrocytes
  141. Where is the cerebrospinal fluid formed?
    Ventricles
  142. The diencephalon is composed of the:
    Thalamus & hypothalamus
  143. The wisp-like roots of the nerves at the end of the spinal cord are called the:
    Cauda equina
  144. Neuron axons that are surrounded by a multilayer, white, phospholipid, segmented covering are called:
    Myelinated neurons
  145. Chemicals released by neurons to increase or inhibit impulses are called:
    Neurotransmitters
  146. The bridge connecting the spinal cord with the brain is the:
    Pons
  147. The inner lining of the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract is composed of:
    Epithelium
  148. Ninety-six percent of the body's mass is made up of:
    Oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, & nitrogen
  149. The essential component of hemoglobin is:
    Iron
  150. A pH level refers to:
    Acidity vs. alkalinity levels
  151. The basic living, structural, & functional unit of the body is known as the:
    Cell
  152. What is the function of phagocytic white blood cells?
    Engulf & destroy bacteria
  153. The result of fertilization of gametes is a/an:
    Zygote
  154. The roof of the mouth is formed by the:
    Hard & soft palates
  155. The teeth are composed primarily of:
    Dentin
  156. The set of teeth that erupt at about six months of age & are lost are the:
    Deciduous teeth
  157. The main duct of the pancreas is the:
    Duct of Wirsung
  158. Which of the following glands are located in the stomach?
    Parietal cells
  159. The portion of the stomach aboce the level of the lower esophageal sphincter is the:
    Fundus
  160. Which of the following substances are absorbed in the stomach?
    Alcohol
  161. The function of the small intestine is:
    Digestion & absorption of nutrients
  162. The small intestine is drained by the:
    Hepatic portal vein
  163. The pouches of the large intestine are called:
    Haustra
  164. The secretion of gastric juice is regulated by the impulses of the:
    Vagus (X) nerve
  165. Testosterone is secreted by the:
    Cells of Leydig
  166. Inhibin is produced by the:
    Sertoli's cells
  167. The most abundant ion in the body is:
    Calcium
  168. The conducting fibers that run from the AV node down the interventricular septum are referred to as the:
    Bundle of His
  169. The left coronary artery divides into the:
    Anterior descending & circumflex
  170. Which of the following structures are found in the ventricles of the heart?
    Papillary muscles
  171. The function of hemoglobin is to:
    Carry oxygen
  172. Albumin, globulin, & fibrinogen are all:
    Plasma proteins
  173. The large vein that drains the head is the:
    Jugular
  174. Which of the following arteries does not arise directly from the aorta?
    Vertebral
  175. The vessel that delivers blood from the gastrointestinal tract to the liver is the:
    Hepatic portal vein
  176. Which of the following is not part of the immune system?
    Thyroid
  177. The thymus gland functions in the immunity by producing:
    T cells
  178. The structure that is located anterior to the esophagus & extends from the larynx to the fifth thoracic vertebrae is the:
    Trachea
  179. The portion of the small intestine that joins the large intestine is the:
    Ileum
  180. Another name for the folds of the stomach is:
    Rugae
  181. The longest, heaviest, & strongest bone in the body is the:
    Femur
  182. The anterior chamber of the eye lies:
    Behind the cornea & in front of the iris
  183. Aqueous humor is found within the:
    Anterior cavity
  184. The ureters enter the bladder:
    Medially from the posterior aspect
  185. Which membrane lines the thoracic cavity?
    Pleura
  186. The region between the lungs is the:
    Mediastinum
  187. Which duct carries bile from the liver & gallbladder to the duodenum?
    Common bile duct
  188. Which of the following is not part of the stomach?
    Hilum
  189. Which ligament stabilizes the duodenojejunal angle?
    Treitz
  190. What valve is located between the left upper & lower chambers of the heart?
    Mitral
  191. Which of the following structures would not be found in a blood vessel?
    Tunica vaginalis

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