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WHAT IS HOVERING
Vertical thrust of a helicopter's rotor
HOW ARE THE FOUR FACTORS DIFFERENT FROM DURING HOVERING AS OPPOSED TO STRAIGHT AND LEVEL FIXED WING FLIGHT
The four forces in hovering are acting vertically in hovering instead of acting horizontally
WHAT ARE THE THREE FLIGHT CONTROLS OF A HELICOPTER
- 1. Cyclic
- 2. Collective
- 3. Directional Control System aka foot pedals
CYCLIC CONTROL CHARACTERISTICS
- 1. Controls lateral and longitudinal movement
- 2. Cyclic is the front joystick
- 3. Manipulates lift and thrust
1. Located on the left side of the pilot (pilot seats in the right seat)
2. Controls the angle of the main rotor blades which controls the pitch of the helo
3. throttle is wrapped around the collective
DIRECTIONAL CONTROL SYSTEM AKA FOOT PEDALS
1. Controls the push and pull of the tail rotor
2. Controls the pitch of the tail rotor
When lateral (left and right) cyclic is applied the rear half of the rotor disk creates downwash that is greater than the forward half of the rotor disk.
What is unique about American Helicopters?
The main rotor turns counterclockwise from the above view and the left cyclic input temporary increases in torque and a right cyclic input will temporary drop in torque
The action of where the main rotor is still turning by air flow rather than the engine itself
Does the tail rotor rotate during autorotation?
Yes the main rotor and tail rotor are connected via transmission. Essentially, as long as the main rotor is turning so will the tail rotor.
The additional lift the helicopter gets when it flies out from its own downwash. Provides as cushioning effect as long as the helicopter is low enough.
Force applied to a spinning disc has its effect happen 90 degrees later in the direction and plane of rotation.
CORIOLIS FORCE (Ice skater example)
When an ice skater spins in a circle and her arms are out, they have a certain spin speed. If she pulls her arms in she spins faster then if she were to spin her arms out. Decrease center of mass to increase speed.
TRANSVERSE FLOW EFFECT
The rear portion has a smaller angle of attack due to have the main rotor pushes air flow down causing the rear to have less lift because of gyroscopic precession.
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