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2010-01-11 11:10:14
hematology ABSITE

absite review chapter 2
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  1. 3 initial responses to vascular injury
    vasoconstriction, platelet adhesion, thrombin generation
  2. exposed collagen + prekallikrein + HMW kininogen + factor XII
    intrinsic coagulation pathway
  3. tissue factor (injured cells) + factor VII
    extrinsic coagulation pathway
  4. factor X + factor V + Ca + platelet factor 3 + prothrombin
    prothrombin complex
  5. catalyzes formation of thrombin
    prothrombin complex
  6. convergence point for intrinsic and extrinsic pathways
    Factor X
  7. inhibitor of factor X
    tissue factor pathway inhibitor
  8. combines with platelets to form platelet plug to cause hemostasis
  9. factor that helps crosslink fibrin
  10. factor that converts fibrinogen to fibrin + fibrin split products
  11. factor that activates platelets
  12. factor that activates factors V and VIII
  13. factor with the shortest half-life
    factor VII
  14. labile factors that are lost in stored blood. activity is not lost in FFP
    Factors V and VIII
  15. only clotting factor not synthesized in liver
    Factor VIII
  16. Vitamin K dependent factors (4 + 2)
    II, VII, IX, and X. Also proteins C and S.
  17. length of time it takes Vitamin K to take effect
    6 hours
  18. length of time FFP is effective after administration
    6 hours
  19. other name for factor II
  20. normal half life of RBCs
    120 days
  21. normal half life of platelets
    7 days
  22. normal half life of PMNs
    1-2 days
  23. anticoagulation factor that binds and inhibits thrombin
    antithrombin III
  24. anticoagulation factor that degrades factors V and VIII, and fibrinogen
    Protein C
  25. anticoagulation factor that acts as a cofactor to Protein C
    Protein S
  26. factor that heparin binds to inhibit coagulation
    antithrombin III
  27. fibrinolytic that is released from the endothelium and converts plasminogen to plasmin
    tissue plasminogen activator (TPA)
  28. fibrinolytic factor that degrades factors V and VIII, fibrinogen and fibrin to degrade platelet plugs
  29. fibrinolytic natural inhibitor of plasmin, released from the endothelium
    alpha-2 antiplasmin
  30. factor secreted by platelets to increase platelet aggregation and promote vasoconstriction
    thromboxane A2 (TXA2)
  31. enzyme secreted by endothelium that decreases platelet aggregation and promotes vasodilation
    prostacyclin I2 (PGI2)
  32. blood product containing highest concentration of vWF, VIII, fibrinogen
  33. blood product with high levels of factor V, VIII, protein C, protein S, ATIII
    FFP (contains all factors)
  34. drugs (2) that cause release of factor VIII and vWF from endothelium
    DDAVP, conjugated estrogens
  35. coagulation measurement of factors II, V, VII, X
  36. best lab value to measure synthetic liver function
  37. lab value measuring most factors (except VII and XIII)
  38. ACT level desirable for routine anticoagulation
  39. ACT level desired for cardiopulmonary bypass
  40. most common congenital bleeding disorder
    Von Willebrands disease
  41. congenital bleeding disorder with normal PT, typically normal PTT, and long bleeding time
    Von Willebrands disease
  42. bleeding disorder with a defective Gp1b receptor on platelets, causing them to have decreased linkage to collagen
    Von Willebrands disease
  43. treatment for Von Willebrands (3)
    cryoprecipitate, DDAVP, conjugated estrogens
  44. reduced circulating vWF
    Type I vWD
  45. defect in vWF molecule itself
    Type II vWD
  46. congenital deficiency in factor VIII. prolonged PTT, normal PT
    Hemophilia A
  47. treatment of hemophilia A bleeding
    factor VIII concentrate, cryoprecipitate
  48. congenital deficiency in factor IX
    Hemophilia B (Christmas disease)
  49. treatment of hemophila B bleeding
    factor IX concentrate, cryoprecipitate
  50. generic cause of bruising, epistaxis, mucosal bleeding, petechiae, purpura
    platelet disorders
  51. GpIIb/IIIa receptor deficiency on platelets which blocks them from binding each other
    Glanzmann's thrombocytopenia
  52. Gp1b receptor deficiency of platelets that keeps them from binding collagen
    Bernard Soulier disease
  53. inhibits Gp1b, GpIIb/IIIa, vWF
  54. treatment of uremic platelet dysfunction (4)
    hemodialysis, DDAVP, cryoprecipitate, platelets
  55. drug that acts as an ADP receptor antagonist, causes platelet dysfunction
  56. antibiotics that bind platelets and increase bleeding time (2)
    PCN, cephalosporins
  57. thrombocytopenia due to antiplatelet antibodies
    HIT (heparin induced thrombocytopenia)
  58. coagulation disorder characterized by decreased platelets, prolonged PT and PTT, and low fibrinogen. often initiated by tissue factor
  59. drug that inhibits cyclooxygenase in platelets, decreasing TXA2
  60. most common congenital hypercoagulability disorder, causing 30% of spontaneous venous thromboses
    Leiden factor
  61. defect in platelet function causing thrombosis and also bleeding. treatment: ASA
    Polycythemia vera
  62. disorder with prolonged PTT, positive Russel viper venom time, false positive RPR for syphilis
    Lupus anticoagulant
  63. causes of acquired hypercoagulability (6)
    tobacco, malignancy, inflammatory bowel disease, OCPs, pregnancy, post-surgery
  64. decrease of protein C and S compared to procoagulation factors, leading to a relatively hyperthrombotic state
    warfarin induced skin necrosis
  65. treatment of 1st DVT
    warfarin 6 months
  66. treatment of 2nd DVT
    warfarin 1 year
  67. treatment of 3rd+ DVT or any PE
    lifetime warfarin
  68. drug that prevents decarboxylation of glutamic residues on Vitamin K dependent factors.
  69. drug that inhibits platelets and coagulation factors
  70. treatment to improve venous return and induce fibrinolysis via tPA release
  71. drug that activates antithrombin III
  72. drug used to reverse heparin action
    protamine sulfate
  73. drug that inhibits fibrinolysis by inhibiting plasmin; used in DIC or post-cardiopulm bypass
    aminocaproic acid (Amicar)
  74. absolute contraindications to thrombolytic use (3)
    active bleeding, recent (<2months) CVA, intracranial pathology