Anti-Infective Agents

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Anonymous
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13970
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Anti-Infective Agents
Updated:
2010-04-11 18:40:45
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Anti Infective Agents
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Anti-Infective Agents
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  1. Antiseptics
    Kill or prevent growth of microorganisms when applied to living tissue
  2. Disinfectants
    applied to inanimate objects
  3. Potency for primary alcohols
    Increases up to 8 carbons, then reaches cutoff
  4. Decreases antibacterial potency of alcohol
    branching
  5. Ethanol
    CH3CH2OH
  6. Spirits
    alcohol is the sole solvent
  7. Tinctures
    alcohol and water mixture is the solvent
  8. Isopropyl alcohol***
  9. Ethylene oxide***
  10. Ethylene oxide
    • Liquid at 12C
    • diffuses though porous material
    • Formulated into Carboxide 10% Ethylene Oxide to reduce explosiveness
  11. Formaldehyde***
  12. Formaldehyde
    • miscible in water
    • slow but powerful germicidal action
  13. Phenols
    • Dilute solutions
    • Antiseptic/Anesthetic
    • Pure phenol = lethal
  14. Phenol (Carbolic Acid)***
  15. Cresol*
  16. Resorcinol*
  17. Resorcinol
    Treatment of ringworm, eczema, psoriasis and seborrheic dermatitis
  18. Oxidizing agents
    active against anaerobic bacteria
  19. Benzoyl Peroxide***
  20. Benzoyl Peroxide
    • Karatolytic
    • antiseptic
  21. Iodine
    Volatile, mix with Iodide
  22. Povidone-Iodine
    • Betadine
    • polyvinylpyrrolidone
    • non-staining
    • pre-op antiseptic
  23. Chlorine-Containing Compounds
    Strong oxidizing agents
  24. Halazone
    used to disinfect drinking water
  25. Chloroazodin
    • disinfect wounds
    • packing for cavities
  26. remove necrotic tissue in massive infections or from radiation necrosis
    oxychlorosene
  27. Cationic Surfactants
    • Cationic Head group
    • Long hydrocarbon tail
    • Inactivated by soaps and other anionic detergents
  28. Methylene Blue
    • Redox properties used in treatment of cyanide poisoning
    • High concentrations result in methemoglobin formation (Fe3+)
    • Low concentrations used to treat drug induced methemoglobinemia.
  29. Preservatives
    Added to liquids to prevent microbial contamination
  30. Methyl ester
    more effective against molds
  31. Propyl ester
    more effective against yeasts
  32. Methylparaben*
  33. Benzyl Alcohol***
  34. Sorbic Acid
    • Effective antifungal
    • Long chain
  35. dermatophytoses
    superficial epidermal infections
  36. mycoses
    superficial infections involving skin and mucous membranes caused by yeasts
  37. Systemic Mycoses
    • invasion of deeper body cavities
    • prevalent in immunocomprimised patients
  38. Azoles
    • Target ergosterol biosynthesis
    • Inhibit Lanosterol 14a-demethylase
    • reduce integrity of fungal membrane
  39. Clotrimazole***
  40. Clotrimazole
    • causes severe GI disturbance
    • external use only
  41. Ketoconazole
    • Broad spectrum
    • depends on acidic pH for dissolution and absorption
    • hepatotoxicity
    • inhibits cholesterol biosynthesis
    • inhibits cytochrom p450s responsible for metabolism of many drugs
    • lower testosterone and corticosterone levels
    • Itraconazole
    • requires an acidic environment for absorption
    • lower side effects than ketoconazole
    • Fluconazole
    • excellent oral bioavailability
    • long elimination half life
    • Allylamines
    • Naf
  42. Naftifine
  43. Allylamines
    • interfere with fungal ergosterol biosynthesis
    • inhibit squalene epoxidase
    • dermatophytes and other filamentous fungi
    • action agains yeasts is fungistatic
  44. Fatty acids
    • antifungal agents
    • soaps
  45. Antifungal Antibiotics
    agents isolated from a natural source
  46. Polyenes
    • broad spectrum
    • bind with sterols in cell membranes
  47. Amphotericin B
    nephrotoxicity in nearly 80% of patients
  48. Nystatin
    • treatment of local and GI monilial infections caused by C. Albicans
    • used in combinations with tetracyclines
    • Natamycin
    • opthalmic suspensions for fungal conjunctivitis
  49. Griseofulvin
    • treatment of refractory ring worm infections
    • therapy takes several months
  50. Quinolones
    • synthetic antibacterial agents
    • end in acin
    • target DNA Gyrase
    • bacteriocidal
    • activity against common gram negative urinary pathogens
  51. Fluoroquinolones
    • 6-Fluoro substituent
    • urinary tract-specific agents
    • G- and G+
  52. Nalidixic Acid***
    • Ciprofloxacin
    • respiratory tract infections
    • complicated urinary tract infections
    • Nitrofurans
    • have FURA in the name
    • Antiprotazoal agents
    • metronidazole
    • Methenamine
    • urinary antiseptic
    • acidification of urine is required
    • sodium biphosphate or ammonium chloride
    • inhibited by urease
  53. acetohydroxamic acid (lithostat)
    urease inhibitor

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